I need the following question answered. ALL WORK MUST BE CITED FROM THE BOOK AND CHAPTER LISTED.
Once again all work cited must come from Leadership: Theory and Practice, "Gender and Leadership," pp. 397-426
Northouse, Peter G. (Ed.). (2016). Leadership: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Paper ISBN: 978-1-4833-1753-3.
For Lesson 15, write an essay of approximately 1,000 words in which you address Thought Question 3: "To be effective leading in multicultural groups and organizations seems to require a massive amount of knowledge that most people do not have the time and resources to acquire. Given this reality, are there compensatory measures that a leader can use to overcome the effects of cultural unawareness/ignorance on his or her performance? What would these include? Why would they work? If your position is that no such compensatory measures exist, then make clear why you support this position." Refer to material in the reading that provides a basis for your position of whether or not you see potentially useful compensatory measures.
Extra reference material
The GLOBE Study
The focus of this lesson is a massive and continuing project called "THE GLOBE STUDY" (GLOBE stands for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness). This study has been conducted by Robert House and his associates since the 1990s.
In the context of this study, culture refers to ?the learned beliefs, values, rules, norms, symbols, and traditions that are common to a group of people? (p. 428).
Complicating the process of leadership are ethnocentrism (the tendency to place at the center of one?s perceptual world his or her ethnicity) and prejudice (attitudes, beliefs, and emotional feelings that we hold toward others on the basis of faulty and unverified evidence). Both frequently surface when leaders have to interact with those of different cultural backgrounds and orientations (see pp. 428-430).
Groups that fall into the above definition (or who represent the clusters of nations in the study of interest) vary along nine dimensions:
- uncertainty avoidance (tolerance for ambiguity);
- power distance (the extent to which someone values hierarchy and differences in authority);
- Institutional collectivism (the extent to which someone identifies with broader social interests rather than individual goals and interests);
- in-group collectivism (the degree to which someone values the social unit versus his or her particular role in a group or organization;
- gender egalitarianism (the extent to which someone promotes and values sexual equality and de-emphasizes differences in biological sex);
- assertiveness (the extent to which someone finds it appropriate to play an activist, aggressive role in social relationships versus a passive, submissive role);
- future orientation (how much someone considers consequences of actions for future realities, as opposed to living for the moment);
- performance orientation (the extent to which someone is concerned with success in task achievement); and
- humane orientation (how relationally oriented and other-centered someone is)1
THE GLOBE STUDY has thus far identified ten regional clusters among 62 countries in which similarities along the nine dimensions of culture within the representatives are greater than the differences: Anglo, Confucian Asia, Eastern Europe, Germanic Europe, Latin America, Latin Europe, Middle East, Nordic Europe, Southern Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. 2
These clusters also vary in the extent to which their constituents value six different forms of leadership:
?Self-protective (see pp. 395-396).
Despite cultural variation, representatives of all nine clusters value 22 particular positive attributes (e.g., trustworthiness, fairness, and honesty) and eschew eight certain negative attributes (e.g., irritability, asocial behavior, and egocentrism).
To be effective leading in multicultural groups and
organizations seems to require a massive amount of knowledge
that most people do not have the time and resources to acquire.
Given this reality,...
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