(solution) 1 WORLD RELIGIONS RS 150 Part 1. Study Guide Part 2. Study

(solution) 1 WORLD RELIGIONS RS 150 Part 1. Study Guide Part 2. Study



Part 1. Study Guide

Part 2. Study Questions for the Exam

Part 1.

1. Focus on the following religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism,

Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto

2. Religious Landscape of the US and the World

3. Religious background of US Presidents and US congress (see moodle and

Pew Forum)

4. History (Timeline, Chronology of major events)

5. Lexicon (Key concepts in each religion) (read the Glossary of the textbook)

6. Read the following files from moodle

– ?Defining Religion?

– ?Epistemological Foundation of the Course?

– Religious Alterity

Part 2


(70 questions)

you will have 40 to 50 questions during the exam!

1. The goal of Hindu religion is to attain:

A. Yoga

B. Nirvana

C. Moksha

D. Samsara

2. In the religious tradition of India, the doctrine of non-violence is called

A. Karma,

B. Yoga,

C. Ahimsa,

D. Atman


3. In the Indian Pantheon, the deity par excellence of intellectuals, writers and

artists is

A. Brahman

B. Kali

C. Sarasvati

D. Vishnu

4. In the Indian Caste system, the word ?Varna? means

A. Birth

B. Race

C. Color

D. Breed

5. The oldest Hindu Sacred Text is known as





6. In China the notion of God is referred to as





7. Most Hindus belong to two major religious groups, divided into the worship of

one of the following deities






8. ?Mortal men believe that gods are begotten, and that they have the dress, voice,

and body of mortals. The Ethiopians claim that their gods are snub-nosed and

black; the Thracians, that theirs are blue-eyed and red-headed. If Oxen, horses, or

lions had hands with which to sketch and fashion works of art as men do. Then

horses would draw the forms of gods like horses, oxen like oxen, and they would

each make their gods? bodies similar in frame to the bodies that they themselves

possess? No! One god there is, greatest among gods and humankind, in no way

like mortals in body or in the thought of his mind. In his entirety, he sees; in his

entirety, he thinks; in his entirety, he hears. Always in the same place, he remains,

moving not at all; it is not fitting that he should shift about now here and, then,

elsewhere. But holding aloof from toil, he sets all things aquiver with the thought of

his mind.?

This view was formulated by the following ancient Philosopher

A. Socrates

B. Plato

C. Xenophanes

D. Aristotle

9. Etymologically the word Nirvana means

A. Paradise in Buddhist religion

B. Eternal Life

C. to ?cool off? or blow out the fire of passion

D. Enlightenment

10. Identify the assertion that is correct:

A. Religious tolerance was invented by the US Bill of Rights and by the

American Founding Fathers

B. Religious tolerance was already promoted in India before the birth of Jesus and

in many other parts of the world

C. Religious Tolerance is a Western idea promoted by the American ?Melting

Pot,? but unknown to other countries, especially those ruled by non-democratic


D. Religious Tolerance was invented by the United Nations? Declaration of

Human Rights

11. At the beginning of the 20th century almost 80% of the world?s Christians

were Caucasian, and just over 80% lived in Europe and North America. However

now Christianity has become a ?third world religion.? Indeed, now white

Christians constitute only about

A. 50% of world Christianity

B. 43%

C. 60%

D. 20%


12. Identify the assertion that is false

A. Islam teaches that there is still sexual activity in Heaven

B. Christians believe that there is no marriage and no sexual activity in Heaven

C. Buddha is the God of Buddhists

D. Christians believe in the resurrection of the body

13. Judaism changed radically from Biblical Hebrew practices to Rabbinic

Judaism when the Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in

A. 90 B.C.E.

B. 90 A.D.

C. 70 B.C.E.

D. 70 C.E.

14. Identify the assertion that is true

A. There are more Christians in Africa than in North America (i.e. US and


B. In the US, most Arab immigrants are Muslim

C. The US is the most religiously diverse country in the world

D. In the US there are less Atheists than members of all non-Christian religions


15. The top 4 Christian countries in the world (in 2005-2007) were

A. USA, England, China, Brazil

B. USA, China, Canada, Brazil

C. USA, Brazil, China, Mexico

D. USA, Mexico, Brazil, China

16. According to most researchers, in less than 50 years (around 2050) the

majority of the top ten Christian countries in the world will be found in

A. Europe

B. Asia

C. Latin America

D. Africa

17. Around 50% of all Christians (in the world) are

A. Protestant

B. Orthodox

C. Catholic

D. Anglican


18. The Ancient Hindu practice of burning alive

the widow on the funeral pyre of her dead husband is called

A. Sati,

B. Purdah,

C. Samskara,


19. Identify the assertion that is false

A. Hindu women won the right to vote in advance of British women

B. the word Vedanta means ?the end of the Vedas? and is applied to the


C. Gandhi?s spirituality was influenced largely by his reading of Baghavad Gita,

rather than the Bible or the Koran

D. The Indian caste system kept women below men in such a way that women

gained the right to vote only thanks to the emancipatory force of Christianity

introduced by British missionaries. British women were emancipated and gained

the right to vote several years before Indian women.

20. In the USA, all non-Christian religions combined (including Judaism, Islam,

Buddhism, Hinduism, Santeria, Wicca, etc) constitute around

A. 10% of US population

B. 5% of US population

C. 15% of US population

D. None of the above

Note: Atheists are not considered here

21. Identify the assertion that is false:

A. The Laws of Manu were compiled by the Brahmins between 200 BC and 200


B. The Sacred texts of Shintoism were written almost 700 years after the birth of


C. Confucius taught the Golden Rule more than 400 years before the birth of


D. The Bible is the oldest sacred text in the world

22. The ?Analects? are the sacred text of the following religion:

A. Taoism

B. Confucianism

C. Mahayana Buddhism

D. Shintoism


23. The word YOGA is derived from the Sanskrit root YUJ which literally means

A. To meditate

B. To follow a spiritual discipline

C. To join

D. To pursue a goal

24. The following religions never produced a US President, except:

A. Quakerism

B. Pentecostalism

C. Lutheranism

D. Orthodox Church

25. In Hinduism the notion of a God beyond attributes, a God beyond personlike

qualities is known as

A. Saguna Brahman

B. Nirguna Brahman

C. Kalki

D. Brahma

26. ?Mirror? is used as an important religious symbol in the following religion:

A. Taoism

B. Confucianism

C. Jainism

D. Shintoism

27. In the practice of Yoga, the highest state of concentration or meditation, when

the mind is one with the divine is known as

A. Sadhu

B. Sannyasin

C. Samadhi

D. Samsara

28. Members of the lowest caste group once called ?untouchables? were renamed

?harijans? by Mahatma Gandhi.

This word ?Harijans? means

Redeemed ones

Sons of Brahmin

God?s chosen ones

Children of God


29. The Bhagavad-Gita is a section of the following corpus of Hindu sacred texts:

A. Vedas

B. Vedanta

C. Mahabharata

D. Ramayana

30. The word ?Buddha? means

A. God

B. Savior,

C. The Enlightened one,

D. A prophet

31. The Chinese philosophy of ?following the wisdom of water? or ?inactive

action? is known as





32. Identify the assertion that is false

A. The word Jain means ?victor?

B. Jainism rejected asceticism

C. Jainism is the religion of non-violence par excellence

D. Sikhism attempted to reconcile Sufi Islam and Hinduism

33. The notion of apophatic theology applies well to the following Taoist


A. The Tao that can be expressed is not the Eternal Tao

B. “Govern a great State as you would cook a small fish?

C. Do away with learning, and grief will not be known.

D. Do away with sageness and eject wisdom, and the people will be more

benefited a hundred times.

34. “Govern a great State as you would cook a small fish.? This wise statement is

attributed to

A. Confucius

B. Jesus

C. Lao-Tzu

D. Buddha


35. The Chinese vision that the teachings of Buddhism, Confucianism, and

Taoism constitute one single religion is referred to by the following notion


San-jiao heyi



36. The Chinese religious art that involves determining the Yin-Yang ?bearings?

of locations for houses, businesses, tombs, and temples, as well as the

arrangements of rooms and the objects within them is known as

Feng liu



San-jiao heyi

37. Identify the assertion that is correct

According to the Chinese ?Yin-Yang? theory,

A. Yin is male and symbolized by the dragon

B. Yin is female and symbolized by the tiger

C. Yang is female and symbolized by the dragon

D. Yang is female and symbolized by the tiger

38. In the US, people who do not believe in God (agnostics and atheists)

constitute around

A. 1 percent of the total US population

B. 10 percent

C. 20 percent

D. None of the above

39. Around 80% of Japanese population practice

A. Shintoism and Confucianism

B. Buddhism and Confucianism

C. Buddhism and Shintoism

D. Shintoism and Christianity

40.The most important supreme deity of Japan is

A. Kami

B. Jimmu Tenno

C. Amaterasu

D. Magokoro


41. The Art of Peace is known in Chinese spirituality as

A. Yin-Yang

B. Wen

C. Wu-Wei

D. Tao

42. President Obama is

A. a Muslim

B. a Christian

C. an Agnostic

D. an Atheist

43. The following President belonged to the same branch of Christianity as Martin

Luther King

A. Jimmy Carter

B. Bill Clinton

C. Barack Obama

D. Georges Bush

44. Critical thinking is not antithetical to faith. In fact it has a solid foundation in

the Bible itself, especially in the following texts:

A. 2 Peter 3, 13-17 and 1 Peter 1, 1-11

B. 1Timothy 1, 3-11 and 2 Timothy 3,16

C. 1 Cor 13, 1-13

D. None of the above

45. ?Man makes Religion, religion does not make man? religion is the opium of

the people.? These words have as author

A. Max Weber

B. Karl Marx

C. Nietzsche

D. Machiavelli

46. ?In reality, there are no religions which are false. All are true in their own

fashion; all answer, though in different ways, to the given conditions of human


This statement was formulated by the following scholar of religion:

A. Max Weber

B. Emile Durkheim

C. Clifford Geertz

D. Sigmund Freud


47. ?What the privileged classes require of religion is the psychological

reassurance as to the legitimacy or deservedness of their economic status.?

The author of this statement is

A. Karl Marx

B. Max Weber

C. Auguste Comte

D. Sigmund Freud

48. The attitude of attributing to God human qualities and vices is known as

A. Iconoclasm

B. Blasphemy

C. Marcionism

D. Anthropomorphism

49. Sati was made illegal in India

A. after independence in 1947

B. in 1829

C. in 1929

D. in 1729

50. Hindu spirituality teaches that genuine religious people must ?act for the

welfare of the world.? This spiritual ideal is known as

A. Ahimsa

B. Lokasangraha

C. Satyagraha

D. Karma

51. The word ?Religion? comes etymologically from the following language

A. Greek

B. Hebrew

C. Latin

D. Sanskrit

52. ?Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this

right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone

or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or

belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.?

This words are found in the following document

A. US Declaration of Independence

B. The US Bill of Rights

C. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 18

D. The 2nd article of the Charter of the United Nations


53. ?Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or

prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the

press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the

Government for a redress of grievances.?

These words are found in the following document:

A. the 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

B. the 2nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

C. the U.S. Declaration of Independence

D. the introduction to the US Constitution

54. People are forbidden the farm the land for fear of destroying life in the

following religious tradition

A. Taoism

B. Confucianism

C. Buddhism

D. Jainism

55. Japan is a melting pot of religious ideas; its traditional religious landscape is

largely influenced by spiritualities from

A. England and the United States

B. China and India

C. China and the US

D. China and Germany

56. Although the spirituality of non-violence is found in almost all the major

religions developed in India, it found its most radical expression in the following

religious tradition:

A. Hinduism

B. Sikhism

C. Jainism

D. Buddhism

57. The traditions of ?Naked Saints? is largely found in the following religion

A. Buddhism

B. Sikhism

C. Jainism

D. None of the above


58. Identify the US President who was at some point in his life a Jehovah?s


*A. Dwight D. Eisenhower

B. Herbert Hoover

C. Richard Nixon

D. Franklin Delano Roosevelt

59. The fundamental religious ideal in Shinto spirituality is Magokoro .

This word means

A. Balance and Harmony with nature

B. Rituals of purification from evil spirits

C. Pure heart

D. loving the deities and offering them sacrifices regularly

60. Identify the assertion that is correct

A. The first national Shinto shrine was established in Tokyo during the 6 th century


B. Shinto was created as a religion during the 6 th century A.D.

C. In Japan Christians constitute around 8% of the population

D. The sacred texts of Shinto were written during the 8 th century A.D.

61. The current US senate is largely dominated (in a demographic sense) by members

from the following religious traditions:

A. Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, and Mormonism

B. Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Buddhism, and Judaism

C. Judaism, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, and the Orthodox Church

D. Judaism, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, and Islam

62. With regard to Christianity, the current 112 th US Congress is largely dominated (in a

demographic sense) by members from the following Christian Churches

A. Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches

B. Episcopal, Presbyterian and Luther Churches

C. Lutheran, Pentecostal, and Episcopal Churches

D. Catholic, Mormon, and Orthodox Churches


63. From 1961 to 2011 the religious landscape trend shows that the US Congress has

been largely dominated (in a demographic sense) by members from

A. The Episcopal Church

B. The Catholic Church

C. Judaism

D. The Baptist Church

64. Identify the assertion that is correct

A. In the US Buddhists constitute 2% of total US population

B. In the US Buddhists constitute less than 2% of total US population

C. In the US Buddhists constitute more than 2% of total US population

D. In the US, Buddhists constitute 0.2% of total US population

65. Identity the assertion that is correct

In the US we have

A. More Hindus than Buddhists

B. More Buddhists than Hindus

C. More Buddhists than Muslims

D. More Muslims than Jews

66. ?Man cannot live by the bread of science and politics alone; he also needs the

vitamins of ethics and morals, faith and hope, love and security, comfort and attention in

the face of death and misfortune, a feeling and experience that as a person he matters

infinitely, and assurance that he is not immediately ?forgotten? or even annihilated when

he dies. These are the elements that religion tries to offer? Religion makes a

contribution in man?s search for identity and security??

This view was formulated by the following scholar of world religions

A. John S. Mbiti

B. Cantwell Smith

C. Wole Soyinka

D. Max Weber


67. ?Errors in Philosophy are ridiculous; But errors in Religion are dangerous.?

This statement was formulated by the following thinker

A. Cantwell Smith

B. Huston Smith

C. David Hume

D. Voltaire

68. ?No peace among the nations without peace among the religions.

No peace among religions without dialogue between the religions.

No genuine dialogue among religions without an accurate knowledge of one another.?

This view was formulated by the following theologian:

A. Hans Kung

B. Karl Rahner

C. Karl Barth

D. Karl Marx


69. ?Those who believe in the unity of humankind, and those who believe in the unity of

God, should be prepared therefore to discover a unity of humankind?s religious history.

We are not so prepared, however? The unity of humankind?s religious history is

obvious, once one sees it. We have, however, been assiduously trained not to see it. Even

more, strongly, we have been pressured not to think it; and not to feel it. Yet today it

beckons our minds? An ambition of mine has for some time been to try my hand, before

I die, at writing a world history of religion in the singular? My point is that every

religious tradition on earth has in fact developed in interaction with the others; not in

isolation, in some watertight compartment. This point might seem obvious, or even

trivial, did it not play havoc with much traditional theology ? and even, more subtly, with

traditional conceptualizations? New in Christendom is the acceptance of pluralism. The

history of man?s religious life, which for some centuries was divided into self-conscious

parts, is beginning to include also a developing history of diverse instances of self-

consciousness of the whole; instances open to each other.?

This insight was articulated by the following scholar of world religions

A. Wilfred Cantwell Smith

B. Huston Smith

C. Max Mueller

D. Emile Durkheim

70. In the history of world religions, the notion of ?idolatry? (and how it is used to belittle

the spirituality of other religions and promote ethnocentric religious arrogance) has been

radically debunked by the following scholar:

A. Huston Smith

B. Cantwell Smith

C. Max Mueller

D. Auguste Comte