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1)What is the structure of an argument by analogy? What are two ways to criticize this kind of argument? Come up with a plausible argument from analogy that we did not discuss in class. Now provide one plausible criticism of it.
2)What is wrong with the first definition of piety that Euthyphro offers at 5e. Why isn?t it a good definition? What are the four criteria that a good philosophical definition must fulfill? For each of these criterion, construct a definition of ?odd number? that fails to fill it, even though it succeeds in fulfilling the other three.
3)If God commands us not to murder because it is wrong, then it seems that God is not all-powerful. Carefully explain why this seems to be the case. What is one way to criticize this argument?
4)If murder is wrong because God commands us not to do it, then it seems that God is not perfect. Carefully explain why this seems to be the case. What is one way that we might criticize this argument?
5)What is the relationship between fear and shame? Between number and even? How does Socrates suggest that these relationships might help us to define piety?
6)What are Euthyphro?s final three definitions of piety? What general problem does Socrates raise with all three of them? How does Augustine respond to this problem?
7)Why might the act of creation seem to imply God?s imperfection? Why does the eternal existence of matter appear to solve this problem?
8)What is Socratic wisdom? What are three reasons that one might think Socratic wisdom is better than normal ignorance? Explain one problem with each reason.
9)Why does Socrates think suicide is wrong? Does he have a proof for this belief? Does he have reasons for this belief? Or is it merely an opinion? What is the difference between these three options?
10)Why does Socrates describe philosophy as a kind of training for death?
11)Why does Socrates think that only philosophers can be truly virtuous? Why does he think that most apparently virtuous actions are not virtuous? Make sure your answer carefully explains how Socrates defines ?philosophy? and ?true virtue.?
12)What are two differences between sticks of equal length and the equal itself. Explain these differences. Show how this same pattern of differences holds for the the relationship between beautiful things and the beautiful.
13)Explain why Socrates thinks that learning is recollection. What does this show?
Socrates infers that we cannot have come to learn of Equality through our senses, but that we obtained our knowledge of it before our birth. And if this holds true of Equality, it should hold true of all the other Forms as well. It would seem that we lose knowledge of these Forms at birth, and it is through a process of learning that we come to recollect them and know them again. This is why Socrates claims that all learning is recollection.
14)How does Socrates try to show that the soul is simple? Why are simple things immortal or eternal? What must we assume to establish this connection between simplicity and immortality?
15)Explain the difference between essential and accidental properties. Give two examples of each. According to Socrates, what is an essential property of the soul? What does this show?
Further Concepts to Study
1)Criteria for good definitions
2)Arguments by analogy
3)Ways to criticize arguments by analogy
4)Definitions of terrorism
the use of violent acts to frighten the people in an area as a way of trying to achieve a political goal
A very important and commonly used form of syllogism is called modus ponens, which is Latin for "method of affirming." It has this classic form:
p implies q
You may construct a truth table to prove the validity of this argument form.
Another important and commonly used form of syllogism is called modus tollens, which is Latin for "method of denying." It has this classic form:
p implies q
Therefore, not p.
6)Definitions of Omnipotence
having complete or unlimited power
validity: a property of arguments, i.e., that they have a good structure.
(The premisses and conclusion are so related that it is absolutely impossible for the premisses to be true unless the conclusion is true also.)
3. soundness: a property of both arguments and the statements in them, i.e., the argument is valid and all the statement are true.
Augustine on God?s perfection
Plato on creation
Charges against Socrates
Socrates is guilty of crime in refusing to recognize the gods acknowledged by the state, and importing strange divinities of his own; he is further guilty of corrupting the young.
All I know is that I know nothing.
admission of your own ignorance and willingness to learn while exposing someone's inconsistencies by close questioning. Socratic irony involves pretending to be ignorant to show someone else is ignorant: thus, the irony.
Plato's theory of Forms or theory of Ideas argues that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
What does from do?
Epistemology, metaphysical, moral, semantical
an essential property of an object is a property that it must have, while an accidental property of an object is one that it happens to have but that it could lack
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Sep 13, 2020EXPERT
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