Criteria for final revision
- Condense--leave out much--deal only with main ideas
- Make sure each sentence is written as clearly and as concisely as possible
- LENGTH: final should be about 250 words (no longer than 1 page)
Components important to your final product
- The first sentence introduces the name of the article and the author.
- The second or third sentence states the author's thesis in your own words.
- Use TRANSITIONS and SIGNAL PHRASES to introduce the author's ideas
- Use quotes sparingly.
- Represent the original article accurately and fairly.
- Be direct and concise, using words economically; use your own words to express the author's ideas.
- DO NOT GIVE YOUR OPINIONS ABOUT THE IDEAS; only report what the author has said.
- Give original article balanced and proportional coverage.
- Include a Work Cited page (separate page) that includes your source citation in MLA format
- Reflection: Write a paragraph reflecting on the entire process: how difficult/easy was it to 1) choose an article; 2) summarize it in two pages; 3) peer review process; 4) condense to one page; 5) discuss how this source might be relevant to your research topic.
- Include a copy of the original article in an attached file when you turn this assignment
In ?Attitudes and Practices of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in the United
States, Canada, and Europe,? Ezekiel J. Emanuel, expresses the importance of understanding the
attitudes and practices related to euthanasia. He said the main objective of the article is to review
the legal status of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in different countries. He also
reviews the data available on practices and attitudes related to euthanasia.
Ezekiel first discusses situations around which euthanasia is considered as well as the
ethical questions raised. He said euthanasia is the voluntary termination of a person's life
especially if they are terminally ill. It can take place with the consent or request of the individual
with an incurable condition or otherwise without their consent. He then presented the arguments
for and against euthanasia based on various ethical, professional, religious and legal concepts in
countries where it existed. He stated further that Euthanasia brings up a series of ethical
questions. One is whether it is right to terminate the life of a critically ill patient experiencing
extreme suffering and pain, or whether there is a difference between ending ones' life and
waiting for them to die.
He goes on to describe ways in which euthanasia can be carried out. It can be done by
taking actions that will lead to the demise of the subject or by not taking actions that are apparently keeping them alive. If a patient refuses to be involved in extraordinary medical care
or burdensome medical assistance, then it is not euthanasia. Ezekiel classifies that there are cases
of the doctrine double effect whereby a doctor administers a painkiller to a patient, but the drug
lead to the patient's condition deteriorating and possibly death. He clarifies that his is not
euthanasia since the intention was to kill the pain. He then provides a key argument for
euthanasia; that it benefits the patient by alleviating their pain and suffering. However, Ezekiel
mentions that the statistics contradict this claim. He explains that in the United States, and
Netherlands, less than a third of euthanasia requests were due to severe pain.
The author provides the States and Countries in which euthanasia has been legalized.
Oregon was the first State to pass the Death with Dignity Act in 1994. He stated the act allowed
for terminally ill people to end their lives through the self-administration of lethal medications.
He explains further that the number of people opting for this has been rising steadily since 1998.
According to Ezekiel, there is, however, a discrepancy between the number of people who took
the prescriptions and those who died. He also said that the other States including Washington,
Vermont, California, and Montana, have since followed suit. In Europe, Ezekiel explain, a Swiss
Organization called Dignitas helps terminally ill people be allowed to die with dignity. He goes
on to name other countries such as Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Colombia, and Canada,
where euthanasia is being performed legally.
Ezekiel summarizes that there is increasing public support for euthanasia in Western
Europe, while the support is declining in Central and Eastern Europe. In the United States, he
mentioned, that the support has remained relatively constant for the last two decades. He
concludes that despite the increasing legalization, euthanasia is still rare and often involves
patients with cancer. The existing data doesn?t point towards widespread abuse of this practice. WORK CITED
Emanuel EJ, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD, Urwin JW, Cohen J. Attitudes and Practices of
Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in the United States, Canada, and Europe.
JAMA. 2016; 316(1):79-90 Reflection:
The article is an excellent one that is highly informative while maintaining objectivity to
leave the reader with a level ground on which to make their opinions. It presents facts and figures
to support the findings related to the theme. I am positive that readers stand to gain a lot from the
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