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(solution) Hi I need to write reflection for my Business Communication


Hi I need to write reflection for my Business Communication subject and this is 2nd reflection from 4th week to 6th week. I need to write around 500 words and at least 2 references. Some details that we have studied and discuss in week 4 is about punctuation; in week 5 we have discuss about interpersonal communication and in week 6 is about intercultural communication, of which I have attached slides below for more detail.  Writing should be 100% unique and no plagiarism plz. Thanks


Interpersonal Communication Communication competence (Kaye?s model) Communication climate

 

The emotional atmosphere when communication is

 

influenced by

 

Your feelings towards other/s

 

Your attitude to the subject being discussed

 

Your feelings about yourself Supportive climate

 

Encourages free and open interaction Defensive climate

 

Inhibits interaction ? thoughts, feelings, ideas hidden as a

 

means of self-protection

 

Source: Dunn, DM & Goodnight, LJ 2003, Communication:

 

Embracing Difference, Pearson, Boston. Recognise defensive communication

 

Avoidance

 

Psychological withdrawal

 

Distancing

 

Reaction formation

 

Sarcasm

 

Outdoing others

 

Overly critical communication

 

Formula communication

 

Source: Dunn, DM & Goodnight, LJ 2003, Communication:

 

Embracing Difference, Pearson, Boston. Gibb?s ?pairings?

 

Behaviours that contribute to a defensive vs

 

supportive climate

 

Evaluation/description

 

Control/problem orientation

 

Strategy/spontaneity

 

Neutrality/empathy

 

Superiority/equality

 

Certainty/provisionalism

 

Source: Dunn, DM & Goodnight, LJ 2003, Communication:

 

Embracing Difference, Pearson, Boston. How to create a positive climate

 

Use descriptive ?I? language

 

Focus on solving problems, not controlling others

 

Be honest: don?t manipulate

 

Show concern for others

 

Demonstrate an attitude of equality

 

Listen with an open mind ??and listen, listen, listen Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. Listen actively The active listening process

 

The listener

 

Attends to the speaker

 

Encourages the speaker

 

Reflects the content and feelings

 

Shows empathy (understanding, being aware of,

 

being sensitive to, and vicariously experiencing the

 

feelings, thoughts, and experience of another)

 

theliterarylink.com/definitions.html Attending behaviour

 

Focus on speaker by giving physical attention through:

 

Eye contact

 

Posture

 

Body movement

 

Personal space

 

Environment

 

Avoidance of distractions Encouraging

 

Use to invite speaker to say more about

 

thoughts or feelings

 

Offer opportunity to speak

 

Allow silences

 

Ask open questions

 

Respond, but minimally

 

Continue to give physical signals of attention Reflecting

 

Give feedback to the speaker through:

 

Paraphrasing

 

Reflecting feelings, not just facts

 

Clarifying statements to confirm interpretations

 

Summarising Showing empathy

 

Empathetic people?.

 

Attend to what is being said

 

Remain objective

 

Recognise nonverbal cues

 

Understand the content of the message

 

Understand the feelings in the message

 

Communicate their understanding Barriers in the listener Interfere with the message

 

Can be physical, psychological and/or emotional

 

Common barriers are:

 

Boredom

 

Personal dislike

 

Desire to change the speaker

 

Prejudging

 

Preoccupation

 

Intrusion of own values and attitudes

 

Jumping to conclusions

 

Selective hearing

 

Perception of lack of credibility

 

Stereotyping NVC Non-verbal communication

 

5 classes

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

? Kinesics (visual)

 

Proxemics (spatial)

 

Chronemics (time)

 

Haptics (touch)

 

Vocalics (paralanguage) 3 levels

 

?

 

?

 

? Personal

 

Cultural

 

Universal Levels of NVC

 

Personal ? Unique actions to that person

 

? Dress style

 

? Manner of greeting people

 

? Use of particular gestures ? Interpretation is aided by knowing the individual Cultural ? Found in a group of people

 

? Generally learnt unconsciously by observation

 

? Can be adopted consciously in order to conform or be accepted by a group

 

e.g. hair style, wearing cap backwards Universal ? Often includes touch, space

 

? Found in all people

 

? Often related to emotions How does NVC relate to verbal

 

communication?

 

Complements a verbal message

 

Modifies a message

 

Replaces a verbal message

 

BUT

 

We can?t always control non-verbals Reading non-verbal communication

 

Words are only part of the message

 

Read words & NVC together

 

If words and non-verbals conflict, the non-verbals are

 

likely to be believed

 

NVC is critical for reading feelings/attitudes Conversation Conversation

 

The basic mode of communication is:

 

a two-way process

 

verbal and non-verbal

 

relational

 

requires self disclosure - ?I? statements

 

requires congruency

 

requires appropriate timing Conversation elements

 

Has content and relationship dimensions

 

Content dimension

 

Meaning, (expressed through language & tone) Relationship dimension

 

Closeness/intimacy (what is said and how it is said) Develops shared meaning

 

Thoughts, ideas, beliefs, feelings

 

Self disclosure May include congruent and incongruent messages

 

Appropriate balance between intimacy and distance

 

Appropriate climate Assertiveness

 

Assertive behaviour is where you are able to:

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

? act in your own best interests

 

stand up for yourself without undue anxiety

 

express honest feelings comfortably

 

exercise personal rights without denying the rights of

 

others Use ?I? statements to express your views.

 

Always consider the risks and responsibilities of being

 

assertive.

 

Always consider the socio-cultural context. Feedback, praise & criticism Feedback considerations

 

Specific and descriptive

 

About behaviour that can be changed

 

Yours ? so own it

 

Timed appropriately

 

Within a day or two of the event

 

Deliver privately

 

Check your motivations

 

Allow time for reaction and conversation Habitually two-way

 

Incremental

 

Supportive, as well as constructive

 

Source: Baney, J. 2003-4, Guide to Interpersonal

 

Communication, Pearson, NJ. How to give feedback

 

Three steps

 

Objectively describe the behaviour

 

?When you...

 

Identify your response

 

....I feel/am...

 

Explain impact of behaviour

 

...because... Examples

 

When you prepare an agenda for client meetings, I feel confident that we won?t forget

 

anything important.

 

I like it when you come to meetings at the scheduled time because then we can finish on

 

time.

 

When you begin speaking before I finish speaking I feel annoyed because I can?t complete

 

my thought.

 

I can?t complete my thought when you begin speaking before I finish (and that bothers

 

me).

 

Source: Baney, J. 2003-4, Guide to Interpersonal

 

Communication, Pearson, NJ. How to give praise

 

Make praise specific

 

Praise progress, not just perfection

 

Praise intermittently

 

Relay praise

 

Praise sincerely Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. How to offer constructive criticism

 

First consider

 

the content

 

Limit criticism to one topic

 

Make sure the criticism is accurate

 

Define the problem clearly

 

Show how your criticism can benefit the recipient the sender

 

Choose the most credible critic

 

Make sure the criticism is appropriate to the critic?s role the relational climate

 

Deliver remarks as part of a positive relationship

 

Accept partial responsibility for the problem

 

Accompany your criticism with an offer to help the delivery

 

Deliver criticism in a face-saving manner

 

Avoid sounding judgemental

 

Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. How to respond to criticism

 

Seek more information

 

Ask for examples or clarification

 

Guess about details of the criticism

 

Paraphrase the critic

 

Ask what the critic wants Agree with the criticism

 

Agree with the facts

 

Agree with the critic?s perception

 

Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. Conflict How to manage conflict

 

Approaches

 

Avoiding

 

Accommodating

 

Competing

 

Collaborating

 

Compromising Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. How to handle conflict assertively

 

Identify the goal you are seeking

 

Choose the best time to speak

 

Rehearse the statement

 

Pinpoint the specific behaviour you want to

 

discuss

 

Explain your reaction to the behaviour

 

Make a request

 

Describe the consequences

 

Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. Video

 

Dealing with Difficult People Negotiation A quick guide to negotiation

 

Negotiation: when parties discuss specific

 

proposals in order to find a mutually acceptable

 

agreement.

 

Win-lose orientation

 

Lose-lose orientation

 

Compromise

 

Win-win orientation Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. Steps to a win-win outcome

 

Identify the needs of both parties

 

Brainstorm a list of possible solutions

 

Evaluate the alternative solutions

 

Implement the solution

 

Follow up the solution Source: Adler, RB & Elmhorst, JM 1999,

 

Communicating at Work, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. Skills needing development

 

Informal communications

 

Conversation with senior leaders

 

Teamwork language People skills (leadership, teamwork, etiquette)

 

Representing your company, especially client interactions

 

Appropriate attire (work, client meetings, board meetings, etc.)

 

Situational leadership and teamwork roles

 

Solving interpersonal and people problems

 

Source: Boyles, D Graduates, 2008 EQ

 

The ability of an organization to perform depends

 

on the relationships of the people involved, which

 

ultimately relates to the degree of emotional

 

intelligence of its employees and leaders. Source: adapted from Dr Jorge Cherbosque, UCLA What is Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

 

EQ is the ability to:

 

Sense

 

Understand

 

Manage

 

Communicate

 

Effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions as

 

a source of human energy, information, trust,

 

communication, creativity, influence and conflict

 

resolution

 

Source: adapted from Dr Jorge Cherbosque, UCLA Research

 

Centre for Creative Leadership found that the

 

primary causes of derailment in executives

 

involved deficits in emotional competence

 

Primarily they had:

 

Difficulty handling change

 

The inability to work in a team

 

Poor interpersonal relations Source: adapted from Dr Jorge Cherbosque, UCLA Research (cont)

 

Egon Zehnder International analyzed 515 senior

 

executives.

 

Those strong in EQ were more likely to succeed than those

 

who were strongest in relevant experience or IQ.

 

EQ is a stronger predictor of success than experience or high

 

IQ.

 

Study included exec?s from Latin America, Germany, Japan

 

with same results across cultures Source: adapted from Dr Jorge Cherbosque, UCLA 4-quadrant model

 

Awarenes

 

s Self Others Emotional selfawareness Social-intercultural

 

awareness Who am I and what are my How can I transcend my

 

potential areas of

 

perspective so that I can

 

development

 

understand and value

 

others

 

Actions Emotional selfgovernance Social architect

 

skills How can I self regulate my

 

emotions so I can be right

 

and effective How do I build teams and

 

create constructive work

 

relationships Source: adapted from Dr Jorge Cherbosque, UCLA Source: Dr Jorge Cherbosque, UCLA How are YOUR

 

relationships at work?

 


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