(solution) Hi, can you help me to answer this assignment? Thank you

(solution) Hi, can you help me to answer this assignment? Thank you

Hi,

can you help me to answer this assignment? 

Thank you

Name and ID _________________________________________________
Assignment 2
1. Your book discusses 3 types of research methods: Descriptive, Correlational, and Experimental. Define the
goal of each type of method.
2. What 3 things are required for study to be an Experimental design (label and briefly define)?
3. Read the following short descriptions of research studies and answer the questions following each study. Each
study is separate so please do not return to an earlier study after you have moved on to a subsequent study.
The Memory Pill Study. Dr. Warner?s study at Miami University demonstrated that a new memory pill is related to
one?s short-term memory capability. The researcher had 100 adults complete a lengthy interview disguised as a
health check. As part of this interview, participants were given three lists of 20 items to remember and then asked
to immediately recall them. The words were all well-known objects, such as pen, brush and flower. Participants
were required to show up to receive the pill once a day for three weeks to ensure that they actually took the pills.
Although all participants thought they were taking a pill to reduce their blood pressure, fifty of them were
randomly assigned to actually take a sugar pill, and fifty took the aforementioned memory pill. After the threeweek period, all of the participants returned to complete a lengthy interview that was similar to the first one.
During this interview, they were again given the memory assessment with three different lists of 20 items to recall.
The researchers found that the group taking the memory pill had higher recall scores than the group taking the
sugar pill at the end of the study. Dr. Warner concluded that the memory pill was clearly associated with a larger
short-term memory capacity.
A. Did the study?s author conclude that the memory pill causes an increase in short-term memory
capacity? -Yes -No
B. What type of study was described? -Experiment -Correlational -Can?t be determined
C. What determined which group people were in?
-Characteristics of the participants determined group membership
-The experimenter determined group membership
-Can?t be determined
The Puzzle Study. Dr. Landau, a research scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, recently found that those
who play challenging puzzles are much less likely to later develop Alzheimer's disease. For the study, researchers
interviewed 165 healthy older people who were an average of 76 years old. They asked a variety of questions about
their lifestyle practices, and how frequently they engaged in cognitively challenging activities such as puzzles since
childhood. They also gave each person a battery of tests to determine whether they had Alzheimer's disease. They
found that adults who participated in more mind-stimulating activities, especially in their early and middle years,
were significantly less likely to have Alzheimer's disease and when they did have it, it was much less severe. The
elderly participants with the most puzzles and books under their belt had brains comparable to those of the
healthy controls who were fifty years younger. Dr. Landau concluded that a lifetime of cognitive activity is directly
linked to not developing Alzheimer's disease later in life.
A. Did the study?s author conclude that a lifetime of cognitive activity causes a decline in later developing
Alzheimer's disease? -Yes -No
B. What type of study was described? -Experiment – Correlational -Can?t be determined
C. What determined which group people were in?
-Characteristics of the participants determined group membership
-The experimenter determined group membership
-Can?t be determined
The Music Study. Dr. Hathaway at the University of Arizona recently conducted a study that showed that listening
to music while studying helps people better comprehend textbook material. The professor had all his students read
a long psychology section from their textbook with headphones on. He randomly chose thirty students to have
music playing in their headphones while thirty other students had nothing playing while they read. Students were
stopped after twenty minutes of reading and were given a set of 10 multiple choice questions that covered all types
of material mentioned in the text. The data were scored without knowledge of which condition the students were Name and ID _________________________________________________
in. He found that students in the music condition answered significantly more questions correctly than those
students that did not listen to music. Dr. Hathaway concluded that the presence of music while studying leads to
better comprehension and he started suggesting to his students that they may want to listen to music while they
prepare for exams.
A. Did the study?s author conclude that the presence of music while studying causes improvements in
comprehension? -Yes -No
B. What type of study was described? -Experiment – Correlational -Can?t be determined
C. What determined which group people were in?
-Characteristics of the participants determined group membership
-The experimenter determined group membership
-Can?t be determined
4. Read the following article retrieved from the web and answer the questions below. Trans fat lead to depression
Are you feeling down in the dumps about all that junk food you?ve been eating lately? Well, it
may literally be the junk food that is making you depressed.
By Amanda Gardner, Health Reporter, Associated Press
The results of a six-year study out of Spain has come to the conclusion that people who eat food high in trans fats
and saturated fats have an increased risk of depression. Trans fats are used in fried foods, shortening and all kinds
of processed foods.
?Participants who regularly consumed elevated levels of trans fats presented up to a 48 percent increase in the risk
of depression when they were compared to participants who did not consume these fats,? said Almudena SanchezVillegas, associate professor of preventive medicine at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
Over the six years of the study, researchers survey over 12,000 people about their diet and lifestyle. At the start of
the study, nobody in the study was diagnosed with depression. However, by the end of the study, more than 600
people were suffering from the condition.
The opposite effect was found with foods such as fish, vegetable oils and olive oil. Those foods are associated with
a lower risk of depression.
The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that about 15 million Americans suffer from depression.
1. Was the message in the title a reasonable conclusion given the study presented? -Yes -No
2. If you answered ?Yes? to the previous question, please explain why. If you answered ?No? to the previous
question, please explain why not.
3. The conclusion drawn by the journalist is: -correlational -causal -descriptive
-can?t be determined
4. Which words or phrase that led you to the conclusion?
5. The primary study described what type: -correlational -causal -descriptive
-can?t be determined
6. Which words or phrase that led you to the conclusion?