Homework 1. You take a sample of 22 from a population of test scores, and the mean of your sample is 60. (a) You know the standard deviation of the population is 10. What is the 99% confidence interval on the population mean. (b) Now assume that you do not know the population standard deviation, but the standard deviation in your sample is 10. What is the 99% confidence interval on the mean now? 2. You were interested in how long the average psychology major at your college studies per night, so you asked 10 psychology majors to tell you the amount they study. They told you the following times: 2, 1.5, 3, 2, 3.5, 1, 0.5, 3, 2, 4. (a) Find the 95% confidence interval on the population mean. (b) Find the 90% confidence interval on the population mean. 3. What is meant by the term “90% confident” when constructing a confidence interval for a mean? a. If we took repeated samples, approximately 90% of the samples would produce the same confidence interval. b. If we took repeated samples, approximately 90% of the confidence intervals calculated from those samples would contain the sample mean. c. If we took repeated samples, approximately 90% of the confidence intervals calculated from those samples would contain the true value of the population mean. d. If we took repeated samples, the sample mean would equal the population mean in approximately 90% of the samples. 4. In a recent sample of 84 used car sales costs, the sample mean was $6,425 with a standard deviation of $3,156. Assume the underlying distribution is approximately normal. a. Which distribution should you use for this problem? Explain your choice. b. Define the random variable X ¯ in words. c. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the population mean cost of a used car. i. State the confidence interval. ii. Sketch the graph. iii. Calculate the error bound. d. Explain what a “95% confidence interval” means for this study. 5. Use the following information to answer the next two exercises: A quality control specialist for a restaurant chain takes a random sample of size 12 to check the amount of soda served in the 16 oz. serving size. The sample mean is 13.30 with a sample standard deviation of 1.55. Assume the underlying population is normally distributed. A. Find the 95% Confidence Interval for the true population mean for the amount of soda served. a. (12.42, 14.18) b. (12.32, 14.29) c. (12.50, 14.10) d. Impossible to determine B. What is the error bound? a. 0.87 b. 1.98 c. 0.99 d. 1.74 6.The scores on a (hypothetical) vocabulary test of a group of 20 year olds and a group of 60 year olds are shown below. 20 yr olds 27 26 21 24 15 18 17 12 13 60 yr olds 26 29 29 29 27 16 20 27 a. Test the mean difference for significance using the .05 level. b. List the assumptions made in computing your answer. 7. Previously, an organization reported that teenagers spent 4.5 hours per week, on average, on the phone. The organization thinks that, currently, the mean is higher. Fifteen randomly chosen teenagers were asked how many hours per week they spend on the phone. The sample mean was 4.75 hours with a sample standard deviation of 2.0. Conduct a hypothesis test. The null and alternative hypotheses are: a. Ho: x ¯ = 4.5, Ha : x ¯ > 4.5 b. Ho: μ ≥ 4.5, Ha: μ < 4.5 c. Ho: μ = 4.75, Ha: μ > 4.75 d. Ho: μ = 4.5, Ha: μ > 4.5 8. An article in the San Jose Mercury News stated that students in the California state university system take 4.5 years, on average, to finish their undergraduate degrees. Suppose you believe that the mean time is longer. You conduct a survey of 49 students and obtain a sample mean of 5.1 with a sample standard deviation of 1.2. Do the data support your claim at the 1% level? 9.At Rachel’s 11th birthday party, eight girls were timed to see how long (in seconds) they could hold their breath in a relaxed position. After a two-minute rest, they timed themselves while jumping. The girls thought that the mean difference between their jumping and relaxed times would be zero. Test their hypothesis. Relaxed time (seconds) Jumping Time (Seconds) 26 21 47 40 30 28 22 23 45 37 29 21 25 43 35 32 10. You flip a coin three times. (a) What is the probability of getting heads on only one of your flips? (b) What is the probability of getting heads on at least one flip? 11. A refrigerator contains 6 apples, 5 oranges, 10 bananas, 3 pears, 7 peaches, 11 plums, and 2 mangos. a. Imagine you stick your hand in this refrigerator and pull out a piece of fruit at random. What is the probability that you will pull out a pear? b. Imagine now that you put your hand in the refrigerator and pull out a piece of fruit. You decide you do not want to eat that fruit so you put it back into the refrigerator and pull out another piece of fruit. What is the probability that the first piece of fruit you pull out is a banana and the second piece you pull out is an apple? c. What is the probability that you stick your hand in the refrigerator one time and pull out a mango or an orange? 12. You buy a lottery ticket to a lottery that costs $10 per ticket. There are only 100 tickets available to be sold in this lottery. In this lottery there are one $500 prize, two $100 prizes, and four $25 prizes. Find your expected gain or loss. 13. According to a recent article the average number of babies born with significant hearing loss (deafness) is approximately two per 1,000 babies in a healthy baby nursery. The number climbs to an average of 30 per 1,000 babies in an intensive care nursery. Suppose that 1,000 babies from healthy baby nurseries were randomly surveyed. Find the probability that exactly two babies were born deaf. Use the following information to answer the next four exercises. Recently, a nurse commented that when a patient calls the medical advice line claiming to have the flu, the chance that he or she truly has the flu (and not just a nasty cold) is only about 4%. Of the next 25 patients calling in claiming to have the flu, we are interested in how many actually have the flu. 14. Assume the speed of vehicles along a stretch of I-10 has an approximately normal distribution with a mean of 71 mph and a standard deviation of 8 mph. a. The current speed limit is 65 mph. What is the proportion of vehicles less than or equal to the speed limit? b. What proportion of the vehicles would be going less than 50 mph? c. A new speed limit will be initiated such that approximately 10% of vehicles will be over the speed limit. What is the new speed limit based on this criterion? d. In what way do you think the actual distribution of speeds differs from a normal distribution? 15. A group of students at a school takes a history test. The distribution is normal with a mean of 25, and a standard deviation of 4. (a) Everyone who scores in the top 30% of the distribution gets a certificate. What is the lowest score someone can get and still earn a certificate? (b) The top 5% of the scores get to compete in a statewide history contest. What is the lowest score someone can get and still go onto compete with the rest of the state? 16. Suppose that the distance of fly balls hit to the outfield (in baseball) is normally distributed with a mean of 250 feet and a standard deviation of 50 feet. a. If X = distance in feet for a fly ball, then X ~ _____(_____,_____) b. If one fly ball is randomly chosen from this distribution, what is the probability that this ball traveled fewer than 220 feet? Sketch the graph. Scale the horizontal axis X. Shade the region corresponding to the probability. Find the probability. c. Find the 80th percentile of the distribution of fly balls. Sketch the graph, and write the probability statement. 17. Facebook provides a variety of statistics on its Web site that detail the growth and popularity of the site. On average, 28 percent of 18 to 34 year olds check their Facebook profiles before getting out of bed in the morning. Suppose this percentage follows a normal distribution with a standard deviation of five percent. a. Find the probability that the percent of 18 to 34-year-olds who check Facebook before getting out of bed in the morning is at least 30. b. Find the 95th percentile, and express it in a sentence. 18. Suppose that the distance of fly balls hit to the outfield (in baseball) is normally distributed with a mean of 250 feet and a standard deviation of 50 feet. We randomly sample 49 fly balls. a. If X ¯ = average distance in feet for 49 fly balls, then X ¯ ~ _______(_______,_______) b. What is the probability that the 49 balls traveled an average of less than 240 feet? Sketch the graph. Scale the horizontal axis for X ¯ . Shade the region corresponding to the probability. Find the probability. c. Find the 80th percentile of the distribution of the average of 49 fly balls.