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(solution) Week 2 - Quiz 2 Time Remaining: Question 1. 1. In a screening

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Week 2 - Quiz 2 Time Remaining: Question 1. 1. In a screening test, the probability of a person with the disease having a positive test is:


(Points : 1)






Positive Predictive Value


Negative Predictive Value Question 2. 2. If 2-stage testing is performed such that only subjects who are positive for both tests are


considered positive, what is the net impact on sensitivity and specificity? (Points : 1)


Sensitivity and specificity will both increase


Sensitivity and specificity will both decrease


Sensitivity will increase; specificity will decrease


Sensitivity will decrease; specificity will increase Question 3. 3. In a community with a population of 10,000 people, the prevalence of a certain disease


is 5%. A screening test for this disease with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 80% is implemented


on the entire population. How many TRUE POSITIVE results will there be? (Points : 1)








7600 Question 4. 4. In the scenario from #3, what is the positive predictive value? (Points : 1) Question 5. 5. Two radiologists review the same set of x-rays for signs of lung cancer. If radiologist A


codes 25 as positive and 75 as negative, and radiologist B codes 32 as positive and 68 as negative, how


many x-rays would we expect them to agree on, just by chance? (Points : 1)








59 Question 6. 6. The case fatality rate is calculated as: (Points : 1)


The number of people who die of a disease divided by the number of people who have the




The number of people who die of a disease divided by the number of people at risk of


developing the disease


The number of people who die of a disease divided by the total number of deaths


The total number of deaths in a community divided by the total population size Question 7. 7. The 5-year survival rate is usually used for: (Points : 1)


Short term, acute conditions


Evaluation of cancer treatment


Traumatic injuries


Patients diagnosed within the last five years Question 8. 8. In a study examining the survival of cancer patients, 100 patients were enrolled at baseline. After one year, 20 patients were known to have died. Assuming no patients were lost to


follow-up, what was the probability of surviving one year? (OK to show numerator/denominator)


(Points : 1) Question 9. 9. What would be the one-year survival rate in the previous question if ten patients had


been lost to follow-up during the first year? Use the life table method. (Points : 1) Question 10. 10. Suppose we are doing a study of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method. The study


enrolled 10 patients at baseline, and the first death occurred after five weeks. If two patients were lost


to follow up before this death was recorded, how do we calculate the proportion who died at that point


in time? (Points : 1)








1/7 Question 11. 11. In a randomized clinical trial, patients are assigned to their treatment group: (Points :




On a first-come, first served basis


Alternately (patient 1 and every odd patient goes to group A, every even numbered patient is in


group B)


According to the severity of their illness


Randomly Question 12. 12. In a randomized trial, who should be blinded to which treatment group the patient is


assigned? (Points : 1)


The patient The person providing the treatment


The person interviewing the patient


All of these Question 13. 13. In a crossover design, controls are: (Points : 1)


The patients themselves


Randomly assigned


Previous patients (historical controls)


Friends of the patients Question 14. 14. ?Intention to treat? is when patients are analyzed: (Points : 1)


According to their originally assigned treatment group


According to their actual behavior, regardless of assignment


Before they actually begin treatment


As their own controls Question 15. 15. The probability of wrongly concluding that two treatments are significantly different is


known as: (Points : 1)


Type I error


Type II error




Significance Question 16. 16. Suppose we are calculating the required sample size for a randomized trial. Which of


the following would increase the required sample size? (Points : 1) Increasing the expected effect size (the difference in response rates)


Decreasing the expected effect size


Decreasing the power


Increasing the size of our grant Question 17. 17. The comparability of our study sample to the population that we ultimately want to


treat is known as: (Points : 1)


Internal validity


External validity




Efficacy Question 18. 18. A phase ____ clinical trial is a small study that seeks to determine whether a new


treatment may have toxic effects (Points : 1)








IV Question 19. 19. All monitoring of a drug?s effects stop after it has entered the consumer market


(Points : 1)




False Question 20. 20. All clinical trials of medical interventions are required to be registered in a public trials


registry before any participants are enrolled in the study (Points : 1) True


False Time Remaining:


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Sep 13, 2020





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