1. Why did the establishment of nation-states occur after the religious turmoil of the sixteenth century? What is the connection between the reforms and the growth of secular power? 2. lumbus ended his career: A) Satisfied that he discovered a whole “New World” in his search for a new route to Asia B) Under arrest for crimes against the Crown C) After five visits to the New World and incurring incredible wealth D) Under tragic circumstances involving the Shipwreck of Santa Bella 3. Describe the role of Trial by Ordeal in the conviction of witchcraft. Is this a fair execution of justice? Why or why not? 4. The characteristics of a nation-state include: A) A distinct border and a political system led by a king B) European countries after the Reformation C) A civilization with a specific region and national unity through social institutions D) A civilization that adheres to only one specific political and religious identity 5. What kinds of historical records exist outside of the written word? Give specific examples of civilizations that we have learned about using non-written sources. 6. Witchcraft prosecution experienced a spike during the Early Modern Period because: A) More people were found practicing witchcraft B) The coinciding spike in poverty and vagrancy led more people down a path of crime C) Heretical fears during the age of the Reformation increased the incidence of witchcraft accusations D) Women were trying to step out of their position by remaining single and adopting powerful cult practices 7. Compare the government and social structure of Asian Empires to that of European Empires using at least two examples from each.