Instructions Please answer each of the following questions in your own words, using the following guidelines: · Pay attention to the marks allotted for each question. Typically, one or two factual sentences are required for each mark. · Use examples where appropriate. · Do not “cut and paste” (copy) from the textbook. · If you use reference materials other than the course materials, you must cite your sources. Questions 1. a. Name and describe the functions of the contractile, regulatory, and structural protein molecules seen in skeletal muscle fibres. b. Beginning with the release of neurotransmitters, outline the steps of skeletal muscle contraction. 2. Compare the regulation (including the role of calcium) of skeletal muscle contraction with that of cardiac muscle contraction and smooth muscle contraction. 3. Beginning with its entry into the right atrium, trace the path of blood through the heart and into the aorta. Name all the anatomical structures of the heart that the blood goes through, and describe the process. 4. a. Describe the numerous roles of calcium ions in cardiac physiology. b. State the Frank‑Starling Law of the Heart, and explain its relationship to cardiac output using the appropriate formula for determining cardiac output. 5. Explain the flow of blood between the heart and the tissues. Ensure that you describe the five main types of blood vessels. 6. a. Identify and discuss the major factors that affect systemic vascular resistance. b. Discuss the process of capillary filtration and reabsorption. 7. a. Describe the negative feedback loop that controls the rate of erythropoiesis. Under what circumstances would you expect the rate of erythropoiesis to increase? How would it be possible to tell if the rate of erythropoiesis is elevated? b. Why does damaged endothelium present an increased risk of blood clotting? 8. Describe the three mechanisms that contribute to hemostasis. 9. a. Describe antibody subclasses and their functions. b. Compare and contrast IgM and IgG antibodies. 10. Compare and contrast the roles of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells.
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