(solution) 1. How one develops is determined by continuous interaction

(solution) 1. How one develops is determined by continuous interaction

1. How one develops is determined by continuous interaction between _________ and __________.

a. learning; environment b. heredity; environment

c. nurture; environment d. heredity; nature

2. The life-span development approach has which of the following goals?

a. Describe the physical changes that occur between birth and adolescence.

b. Describe and explain behavior changes within an individual and differences between individuals from conception to death.

c. Explain the results of learning from conception to death.

d. Investigate the influence of heredity and environment upon individuals from conception to death.

3. A researcher who studies a fixed group of people over a long period of time is, by definition, using the __________ method.

a. longitudinal b. correlational

c. cross-sectional d. biographical study

4. Erikson’s theory of social development viewed the ages of two to three, his second stage, as being characterized by the major challenge of __________.

a. identity versus role diffusion b. basic trust versus mistrust

c. industry versus inferiority d. autonomy versus shame and doubt

5. Erikson saw the major challenge of young adulthood as that of __________.

a. intimacy versus isolation b. identity versus role diffusion

c. generativity versus stagnation d. integrity versus despair

6. Which of the following stages is the most critical, according to Erikson?

a. generativity vs. stagnation b. autonomy vs. self-doubt

c. identity vs. role confusion d. trust vs. mistrust

7. Which of the following is the correct order for Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development?

a. sensory-motor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations

b. preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations, sensory-motor

c. preoperational, sensory-motor, concrete operations, formal operations

d. preoperational, formal operations, sensory-motor, concrete operations

8. Based on Piagetian theory, which of the following relationships is NOT correct?

a. concrete operations–have attained conservation b. preoperational–animism

c. formal operationsegocentrism d. sensorimotor–developing object permanence

9. Piaget attributed cognitive development to the interaction of what two processes?

a. assimilation and accommodation b. assimilation and egocentric thinking

c. egocentric thinking and conservation d. conservation and accommodation

10. According to Lawrence Kolberg, reasoning out what one should do in posed moral dilemmas based on abstract principles of right and wrong and justice illustrates the _______ level of moral development.

a. preconventional b. postconventional

c. conventional d. nonconventional

11. From the second week until the third month after conception, the developing organism is called a(n) __.

a. neonate b. fetus c. zygote d. embryo

12. Toxic substances such as alcohol and nicotine that cross the placenta and may result in birth defects are called __________.

a. neuroleptics b. teratogens c. pathogens d. antigens

13. Gloria was born prematurely. Gloria may be able to live out of her mother’s body if:

a. she was born less than 2 months before she was due.

b. she had passed her age of viability.

c. she was in the 7th or later month of her prenatal development.

d. all of the above

14. The strange situation procedure, in which researchers unobtrusively watch an infant in the presence or absence of several combinations of the child, caretaker, and stranger, is used to study _________.

a. social smiling b. attachment

c. identification d. dependence and independence

15. During prenatal development, the organism depends on the ________ to exchange food and waste products with the mother’s blood stream.

a. ovum b. umbilicus c. placenta d. uterus

16. The most obvious change ushering in adolescence is __________.

a. voice change b. intellectual growth

c. the growth spurt d. emotional upheaval

17. In order to make the transition from dependence on parents to dependence upon one’s self, the adolescent must develop a stable sense of ____________________.

a. identity b. control c. status d. acceptance

18. When adolescents are asked what they MOST dislike about themselves, they are most likely to say they dislike their __________________.

a. personality b. social status

c. physical appearance d. inability to control their own life

19. Research indicates that onset of puberty _______________.

a. has remained relatively unchanged for several centuries

b. is occurring at later ages than ever before in developed countries

c. is occurring at earlier ages than ever before in developed countries

d. is less important to teenagers today than it has been historically

20. According to Erik Erikson, the crucial task confronting a person approaching death is that of establishing or attaining _______.

a. trust b. ego identity c. ego integrity d. autonomy

21. The cessation of menstruation is called __________.

a. menopause b. endometriosis c. menarche d. the climacteric

22. The pattern of events that is repeated in each new generation is referred to as the __________.

a. developmental sequence b. family cycle

c. family circle d. family pattern

23. Which of the following is NOT typically a characteristic of successful women?

a. first born in the family b. successful in school

c. entered the same career as their father d. received the support of their fathers

24. Which of the following statements about marital satisfaction appears to be true?

a. It is low for elderly couples.

b. It is highest for young adults.

c. It may reach its highest level during late adulthood.

d. It is highest for those who marry young.

25. George, at age 42, lost his job, was divorced by his wife, and couldn’t seem to keep friends for very long. George came more and more to feel that he was accomplishing nothing with his life. According to Erikson, George is probably:

a. not going to undergo a midlife transition.

b. about to undergo a nervous breakdown.

c. experiencing feelings of stagnation.

d. not responsible for his own life situation.

26. Car salesmen often encourage a test drive. Perhaps they know about ___________.

a. the door-in-the-face approach b. Leon Festinger

c. the foot-in-the-door approach d. making large requests first

27. Early studies indicated that women conformed more than men. Later research has shown that women’s conforming behavior is motivated by their desire to ________.

a. be popular b. avoid rejection

c. become the group leader d. keep group conflict at a minimum

28. Which of the following is an example of obedience, as defined by social psychologists?

a. A soldier shoots enemy women and children on orders from his commanding officer.

b. People clean their own table in a restaurant that has a sign reading, “Help keep costs down and clean off your table.”

c. Passengers move to the back of the bus as soon as the driver tells them to.

d. Stan has thrown away all of his old ties and bought new ones to “be in style.”

29. Changing one’s behavior in response to real or perceived social pressures is referred to as _______ by social psychologists.

a. compliance b. conformity c. influence d. obedience

30. What percent of subjects in Milgram’s experiment on obedience actually completed the shock series?

a. less than 1% b. between 5% and 10% c. about 65% d. about 90%

31. Asch had subjects judge the length of straight lines after they heard “fake” subjects consistently give the same incorrect length judgment. Under this kind of social influence, the real subjects conformed to a distorted view of reality on about ________ of the judgment trials.

a. 90% b. 1/3 c. 50% d. 2/3

32. The Milgram obedience study has been criticized on the basis of:

a. validity. b. ethics. c. reliability. d. applicability.

33. Altruistic behavior is behavior that:

a. is intended to be helpful to others. b. unintentionally harms others.

c. intentionally harms others. d. has no known motivation behind it.

34. A major reason why people won’t help when there are many bystanders is because:

a. of diffusion of responsibility. b. people are egoistic.

c. people like to see others hurt. d. people are not altruistic.

35. Which of the following is NOT true?

a. Bystanders often do not perceive a crisis as an emergency.

b. Bystanders fail to help because of basic human callousness.

c. The greater the number of bystanders, the less likely it is that anyone will come forward to help the victim of a crisis situation.

d. all of the above.

36. If a person sees a victim in dire need, but doesn’t know how to help, that person will most likely:

a. stay with the victim. b. do nothing.

c. go for help. d. attempt to offer first aid.

37. A very cohesive group, insulated from outside opinion, with a respected leader must make a decision quickly. As they deliberate, this group should be especially aware of the phenomenon called:

a. deindividuation. b. social facilitation.

c. groupthink. d. group polarization.

38. What is the tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task if individuals’ contributions will not be evaluated?

a. social facilitation b. the goof-off phenomenon

c. social idleness d. social loafing

39. Any group of people who feel a sense of solidarity and exclusivity in relation to nonmembers is ______.

a. an in-group b. a dominance hierarchy

c. an out-group d. a support group

40. According to Irving Janis and cited in the text, the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba was a result of ______.

a. a weak leader b. groupthink

c. risky shift d. group polarization

41. The major problem associated with groupthink is which of the following?

a. There is no leadership during the decision making process. b. Group polarization occurs.

c. Risky shift occurs. d. No critical evaluation occurs.

42. Which of the following IS an example of a group norm?

a. playing sports b. watching television

c. working at a part-time job d. standing when the national anthem is played

43. The idea that we often learn about ourselves by comparing our performance with that of other people is reflective of:

a. social comparison theory. b. LeBon’s view on mob violence.

c. cognitive dissonance. d. performance comparison theory.

44. The extent to which the first information we receive about someone influences our impression of that person more than later information is called _______.

a. the phi phenomenon. b. the halo effect.

c. attribution theory. d. the primacy effect.

45. Which of the following statements about prejudice and discrimination is NOT true?

a. Discrimination often leads to aggressive behavior.

b. They are formed from facts and personal experience.

c. They are practiced even if it hurts the person practicing them.

d. The targets of prejudice often take on prejudicial attitudes.

46. Each of the following is identified by the communication model of persuasion as a key element in changing people’s behaviors EXCEPT __________.

a. characteristics of the audience b. the medium of communication

c. the context d. the source

47. A relatively stable organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies toward something or someone else is a(n) __________.

a. affect b. cognition c. archetype d. attitude

48. Which of the following is NOT one of the four categories of factors that can influence the effectiveness of attempts to change people’s attitudes?

a. the communicator b. the audience

c. the motive d. the message itself

49. Whenever a person has two contradictory cognitions at the same time, a state of _______ exists.

a. cognitive congruence b. nonreciprocity

c. cognitive dissonance d. identity diffusion

50. Studies on similarity and attractiveness have found that _______.

a. the more similar two people are, the stronger the attraction between them, up to a point

b. similarity appears to be unrelated to attraction

c. complementarity is a more powerful influence on attraction than similarity

d. the more similar two people are, the weaker the attraction between them, due to boredom