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(solution) Assess the priority of the five control techniques. Give an


Assess the priority of the five control techniques. Give an example for each of the five control techniques for an operation you are familiar with. If you are not familiar with an operation that contains hazards, give an example for each of the five techniques using an operation involving hand grinding of large metal parts.

I have attached a pdf for reference.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.


cHAprER 3 RrcocNrrroN AND CoNTRoL oF HAZARDS . 39 The broad goal of MORT is to provide management with a self-analysis

 

from which it can recognize a wide range of errors and see how they are related.

 

This produces a pattern from which management can recognize cause and

 

effect. Once the basic parts of the technique are learned, they can be applied

 

to many aspecs o[ managing an enterprise.

 

Several comments are in order regarding the use of either a failure

 

mode and effect analysis or a fauit tree analysis. The accuracy and value of

 

the finished chart or diagram will be directly proportional to the care taken

 

in making it. If quick identification is all that is needed, a simple analysis will

 

su{fice. If the study is to be used to establish acceptable risk, a more thorough

 

analysis is needed. Establishing acceptable risk must involve at least an estimate of probability and severity. Knowledge ofjust what evens are most likely

 

to cause what injuries and what properry damage must be obtained before risk

 

can be controlled.

 

When it comes to providing safeguards to assure that the established risk

 

is met, one can turn to the probabiliry figures generated in the FMEA or FTA.

 

For example, if the acceptable risk for a certain failure is set at one chance

 

in one million, the safeguards built into that system must provide a fail-safe

 

reliability at least as good as one failure per one million operations. Priorities in Controlling Hazards

 

{}ren causes of accidents have been determined and their importance has

 

been evaluated, there are several ways to proceed to achieve an established

 

goal. It has been seen that accidents can be caused by people or things. {hen

 

things-machinery, tools, the workplace environment-are identified as potential

 

causes ofaccidents, these things or cerlain characteristics they possess are labeled

 

hazards. People are not referred to as hazards, but perhaps they should be.

 

After all, people design the machinery, the tools, and the conditions in the

 

environment that become hazards, and people misuse all the things that cause

 

the accidents. In one way or another, people are the primary cause of nearly

 

all accidents.

 

It is frequently valid to ask, "Did the worker cause the machine or tool to

 

malfunction, or did the poor design of the machine or tool cause the worker

 

to malfunction?" Many studies have shown that poorly designed equipment

 

and work environments can cause workers to per{orm poorly. System safety

 

engineering should have initial input to the system design requirements.

 

Most of the phlaical and mental capabilities ofpeople are inherent qualities

 

that can be developed to some extent but not changed very much. We cannot

 

alter the design of people to satisry a particular job requirement, although we

 

car select those whose abilities and chamcteristics best suit them to certain tasks.

 

A machine or a tool or an environment, however, can be designed. It can

 

be altered to suit the needs of the task and/or the people involved. In fact,

 

the task iself can be designed or redesigned more easily than people can be

 

altered.

 

It makes more sense, then, to correct the hazards or, better still, to design

 

things properly in the first place. It is always much faster and less expensive to

 

design and build things properly the first time than it is to redesign and alter

 

things that are already made. 40 . SAFETY ENCINEERINC Once hazards have been identified, there are measures that can be taken

 

to mitigate the hazard. 1. Design for minimum hazard (eliminate or reduce) 2.

 

3.

 

4.

 

5. . Provide safety devices.

 

Provide warning devices.

 

Provide special procedures.

 

Terminate system. The priority, or precedence, of these corrective measures is important. Only

 

the first measure can prevent the accident from happening, and only if the hazard

 

is designed oul Providing safety devices lessens the probabiliry ofan accident but

 

does not reduce or eliminate the hazard itself. Each step is to be used only if the

 

step above it cannot be accomplished; therefore, step 2 will be utilized only if step

 

I cannot be accomplished. Step 5 is always a management decision.

 

Let us look at an example. The operator of a grinding machine has been

 

given training, is well supervised, and wears safety glasses. In addition, the machine includes guarding adequate to isolate the grinding wheel. {rtrat is

 

the hazard? There may be several: the wheel may burst; the workpiece may

 

be thrown from its mounting; certainly there will be particles flying from the

 

wheel and/or the workpiece. Could the hazard be eliminated or reduced? Possibly, if another qpe of operation could be found that would be as effective as

 

the grinding operation. In fact, even a less-effective method miEht be acceptable

 

if it eliminated the hazards inherent in grinding. In this example, an acceptable

 

substitute has not been found, and prioriry 2 has been attempted' Again, isolation cannot be complete or entirely dependable: complete isolation would

 

prohibit the operation. Finally, priorities 3 and 4 have been applied because

 

the first two priorities were found unfeasible.

 

Another set of terms is sometimes used to distinguish the first two priorities from the last three. Since the first two involve design of the machine, tool,

 

or environment, they are called engineering measures. The last three, involving people, are called management measures. Engineering measures should

 

be attempted first, and then, if they lail to solve the problem satisfactorily,

 

management measures should be undertaken. The fact that employees are

 

using personal protective equipment does not necessarily mean that management has bJpassed engineering measures, but it does mean that engineering

 

measures have not solved the problem. ( [tI

 

QUESTTONS

 

2007 the Company A employed an average of 543 people who

 

worked a total of 1,086,000 hours and experienced the following:

 

5 burns (15 workdays, 19 calendar days, lost)

 

4 hand and finger cuts (14 workdays, 20 calendar days, lost)

 

1 eye injury (12 workdays, 18 calendar days, lost)

 

26 recordable cases involving no lost days

 

31 first aid cases

 

Determine the incidence rate and the alternate incidence rate. 1. In

 


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