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(solution) Assess the priority of the five control techniques. Give an

Assess the priority of the five control techniques. Give an example for each of the five control techniques for an operation you are familiar with. If you are not familiar with an operation that contains hazards, give an example for each of the five techniques using an operation involving hand grinding of large metal parts.

I have attached a pdf for reference.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

cHAprER 3 RrcocNrrroN AND CoNTRoL oF HAZARDS . 39 The broad goal of MORT is to provide management with a self-analysis


from which it can recognize a wide range of errors and see how they are related.


This produces a pattern from which management can recognize cause and


effect. Once the basic parts of the technique are learned, they can be applied


to many aspecs o[ managing an enterprise.


Several comments are in order regarding the use of either a failure


mode and effect analysis or a fauit tree analysis. The accuracy and value of


the finished chart or diagram will be directly proportional to the care taken


in making it. If quick identification is all that is needed, a simple analysis will


su{fice. If the study is to be used to establish acceptable risk, a more thorough


analysis is needed. Establishing acceptable risk must involve at least an estimate of probability and severity. Knowledge ofjust what evens are most likely


to cause what injuries and what properry damage must be obtained before risk


can be controlled.


When it comes to providing safeguards to assure that the established risk


is met, one can turn to the probabiliry figures generated in the FMEA or FTA.


For example, if the acceptable risk for a certain failure is set at one chance


in one million, the safeguards built into that system must provide a fail-safe


reliability at least as good as one failure per one million operations. Priorities in Controlling Hazards


{}ren causes of accidents have been determined and their importance has


been evaluated, there are several ways to proceed to achieve an established


goal. It has been seen that accidents can be caused by people or things. {hen


things-machinery, tools, the workplace environment-are identified as potential


causes ofaccidents, these things or cerlain characteristics they possess are labeled


hazards. People are not referred to as hazards, but perhaps they should be.


After all, people design the machinery, the tools, and the conditions in the


environment that become hazards, and people misuse all the things that cause


the accidents. In one way or another, people are the primary cause of nearly


all accidents.


It is frequently valid to ask, "Did the worker cause the machine or tool to


malfunction, or did the poor design of the machine or tool cause the worker


to malfunction?" Many studies have shown that poorly designed equipment


and work environments can cause workers to per{orm poorly. System safety


engineering should have initial input to the system design requirements.


Most of the phlaical and mental capabilities ofpeople are inherent qualities


that can be developed to some extent but not changed very much. We cannot


alter the design of people to satisry a particular job requirement, although we


car select those whose abilities and chamcteristics best suit them to certain tasks.


A machine or a tool or an environment, however, can be designed. It can


be altered to suit the needs of the task and/or the people involved. In fact,


the task iself can be designed or redesigned more easily than people can be




It makes more sense, then, to correct the hazards or, better still, to design


things properly in the first place. It is always much faster and less expensive to


design and build things properly the first time than it is to redesign and alter


things that are already made. 40 . SAFETY ENCINEERINC Once hazards have been identified, there are measures that can be taken


to mitigate the hazard. 1. Design for minimum hazard (eliminate or reduce) 2.






5. . Provide safety devices.


Provide warning devices.


Provide special procedures.


Terminate system. The priority, or precedence, of these corrective measures is important. Only


the first measure can prevent the accident from happening, and only if the hazard


is designed oul Providing safety devices lessens the probabiliry ofan accident but


does not reduce or eliminate the hazard itself. Each step is to be used only if the


step above it cannot be accomplished; therefore, step 2 will be utilized only if step


I cannot be accomplished. Step 5 is always a management decision.


Let us look at an example. The operator of a grinding machine has been


given training, is well supervised, and wears safety glasses. In addition, the machine includes guarding adequate to isolate the grinding wheel. {rtrat is


the hazard? There may be several: the wheel may burst; the workpiece may


be thrown from its mounting; certainly there will be particles flying from the


wheel and/or the workpiece. Could the hazard be eliminated or reduced? Possibly, if another qpe of operation could be found that would be as effective as


the grinding operation. In fact, even a less-effective method miEht be acceptable


if it eliminated the hazards inherent in grinding. In this example, an acceptable


substitute has not been found, and prioriry 2 has been attempted' Again, isolation cannot be complete or entirely dependable: complete isolation would


prohibit the operation. Finally, priorities 3 and 4 have been applied because


the first two priorities were found unfeasible.


Another set of terms is sometimes used to distinguish the first two priorities from the last three. Since the first two involve design of the machine, tool,


or environment, they are called engineering measures. The last three, involving people, are called management measures. Engineering measures should


be attempted first, and then, if they lail to solve the problem satisfactorily,


management measures should be undertaken. The fact that employees are


using personal protective equipment does not necessarily mean that management has bJpassed engineering measures, but it does mean that engineering


measures have not solved the problem. ( [tI




2007 the Company A employed an average of 543 people who


worked a total of 1,086,000 hours and experienced the following:


5 burns (15 workdays, 19 calendar days, lost)


4 hand and finger cuts (14 workdays, 20 calendar days, lost)


1 eye injury (12 workdays, 18 calendar days, lost)


26 recordable cases involving no lost days


31 first aid cases


Determine the incidence rate and the alternate incidence rate. 1. In


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Sep 13, 2020





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