Chapter 1 Philosophy and the Search for Wisdom: 1. What is philosophy? 2. What are the primary areas of philosophy? 3. What is an archetype? 4. How does an archetype differ from a stereotype? 5. What is wisdom? 6. What is knowledge? 7. What is belief? Chapter 2 The Asians Sages: Lao-tzu, Confucius, and Buddha 8. What are the qualities of the sage? 9. What is Tao? 10. What are yin and yang? 11. What is the Golden Mean? 12. What is humanism? 13. What is Ll? 14. What is Jen? 15. What is asceticism? 16. What are the Four Noble Truths? 17. What s a bodhisattva? 18. What is nirvana? Chapter 3 The Sophist: Protagoras 19. What is the difference between a sophos and a philosopher? 20. Whatrole dd the ned for explanations play in the development of presocratic philosophy? 21. What is rational discourse? 22. What is a Sophist? 23. What is ethnocentrism? 24. How did charging fees affect the teachings of the Sophists? 25. What is relativism? 26. What is the Ring of Gyges? 27. What is moral realism? 28. What is the doctrine of the superior individual? Chapter4 The Wise Man: Socrates 29. What is the ?Socratic Problem?? 30. What is a paradigmatic individual? 31. What is the Socrate?s dialect? 32. What role did Socrates? ugliness play in his philosophy? 33. What role did Socrates? poverty play in his philosophy? 34. What role does Socrates? claim of ignorance play in his philosophy? 35. What is Socratic irony? 36. Why did some Athenians think that Socrates was a Sophist? 37. What is Socratic intellectualism? Chapter 5 The Philosopher King: Plato 38. What was the Academy? Where did it get its name? What was its chief purpose? 39. How did Plato distinguish between knowledge and opinion? 40. What are Platonic Forms? 41. Are Forms the same as ideas? 42. What is the Allegory of the Cave? 43. What are the three basic levels of reality according to Plato? 44. What are the cardinal virtues? 45. What are the parts of the soul? Chapter 6 The Naturalist: Aristotle 46. What is naturalism? 47. How did Plato distinguish between knowledge and opinion? 48. What is form according to Aristotle? 49. What is matter according to Aristotle? 50. What are the Four Causes? 51. What is entelechy? 52. What is teleological thinking? 53. What is eudaimonia? 54. What is sophrosyne? 55. What is character? 56. What is the Aristotlelian mean? 57. What is virtue according to Aristotle? Vice? Chapter 7 The Stoics: Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius 58. What is hedonism? 59. What is Cyrenaic Hedonism? 60. What is Epicurean Hedonism? 61. What is Cynicism? 62. What is the relationship of Socrates to Cynicism and Stoicism? 63. What is the stoic logos? 64. What is under our control according to the Stoics? 65. What is the cosmopolis? 66. Who was James Stockdale? Chapter 8 The Scholar: Thomas Aquinas 67. What is theology? 68. What is Scholasticism? 69. What is the argument from motion? 70. What is the cosmological argument? 71. What is the argument from necessity? 72. What is the principle of sufficient reason? 73. What is the principle of plentitude? 74. What is the argument from gradation? 75. What is the teleological argument? Chapter 9 The Rationalist: René Descartes 76. What is rationalism? 77. What is the coherence theory of truth? 78. What is methodic doubt? 79. What are innate ideas? 80. What are a priori ideas? 81. What is a posteriori knowledge? 82. What is skepticism? What is the cogito? 83. What is the evil genius? 84. What is materialism? 85. What is Cartesian dualism? 86. What is the ontological argument? 87. What is the mind-body problem? Chapter 10 The Skeptic: David Hume 88. What is a skeptic? 89. What is empiricism? 90. What is the epistemological turn? 91. What is the correspondence theory of truth? 92. How do primary qualities differ from secondary qualities? 93. What is idealism (immaterialism)? 94. What is epistemological dualism? 95. What is the difference between impressions and ideas? 96. What is the empirical criterion of meaning? 97. What is the bundle theory of the self? 98. What is inductive reasoning? Chapter 11 The Universalist: Immanuel Kant 99. What is the difference between ?nonmoral? and ?immoral?? 100. What is Kantian formalism? 101. What is critical philosophy? 102. What are phenomenal and noumenal reality? 103. What are practical reason and theoretical reason? 104. What is maxim? What makes a maxim moral? 105. What is a hypothetical imperative? 106. What is the practical imperative? 107. What is a thought experiment? 108. What is the original position, and how is it related to the veil of ignorance? Chapter 12 The Utilitarian: John Stuart Mill 109. What is psychological hedonism? 110. What is ethical hedonism? 111. What is the principle of utility? 112. What is simple utilitarianism? 113. What is the hedonic calculus? 114. What is the greatest happiness of principle? 115. What is the egotistic hook? 116. What is refined utilitarianism? 117. What is altruism? Chapter 13 The Materialist: Karl Max 118. What is bourgeoisie? 119. Wha is proletariat? 120. What is the ?dialectal process of history?? 121. What does Marx mean by mystification? 122. What is Marxian materialism? 123. What are the three components of the material base of society? 124. What is the difference between superstructure and substructure of society? 125. What is capitalism? 126. What is surplus value? 127. What does it mean to be co-opted? Chapter 14 The Existentialist: Søren Kierkegaard 128. What is existentialism? 129. What was the Kierkegaard family curse? 130. Who was Regina Olsen, and what role did she play in Kierkegaard?s philosophy? 131. What is inauthenticity? 132. What does Kierkegaard mean by ?passion?? 133. What does Kierkegaard mean by ?becoming a subject?? 134. What are the stages on life?s way? 135. What is the Kierkegaard leap of faith? 136. What does Kierkegaard mean by ?edification?? Chapter 15 The Pragmatist: Williams James 137. What is pragmatism? 138. What is pragmaticism? 139. What is the pragmatic theory of meaning? 140. What is the pragmatic method? 141. What is meant by the cash value of an idea? 142. What is determinism? 143. What does it mean to be healthy-minded? 144. What does it mean to be morbid-minded? 145. What is a self-fulfilling prophecy? 146. What is the pragmatic paradox? Chapter 16 The Anti-Philosopher: Friedrich Nietzsche 147. What is modernity? 148. What is pessimism? 149. What is tragic optimism? 150. What is Nietzschean perspectivism? 151. What is nihilism? 152. What is overman? 153. What is underman? 154. What is slave morality? 155. What is master morality? 156. What is ressentiment? Chapter 17 The Twentieth Centruy: Ludwig Wittgenstein and Martin Heidegger 157. What is philosophical deconstruction? 158. What is analytic philosophy? 159. What is continental philosophy? 160. What is philosophical realism? 161. What makes a proposition meaningful? 162. What is phenomenology? 163. What is consciousness? 164. What is ontology? 165. What is the ?they?? 166. What is ?idle talk?? 167. What is the ?standing-reverse?? Chapter 18 Philosophy as a Way of Life 168. What is philosophical advocacy? 169. Who was Jean-Paul Sartre? 170. What is the ?different voice? Carol Gilligan identifies? 171. What os the issue for ?representation? in academic philosophy? 172. In what sense was Martin Luther King, Jr. a public philosopher? 173. Who is Peter Singer? 174. Who is Martha C. Nussbuam? 175. Why does Nussbaum describe her philosophy as ?neostoic?? 176. Who is Pierre Hadot? 177. What does Hadot see as the goal of the sage?