(solution) Question 1. 1. (TCO 1) In Chapter 1, we learned the definition of

(solution) Question 1. 1. (TCO 1) In Chapter 1, we learned the definition of

Question 1.1. (TCO 1) In Chapter 1, we learned the definition of the term critical thinking. What skill(s) does a student need for critical thinking? (Points : 4)

       To separate fact from opinion
       To construct and critically evaluate claims and arguments
       To select the strongest set of supporting data
       a and b only
       All of the above

Question 2.2. (TCO 1, 2, 4) In Chapter 2, we learned the definition of the term issue. An issue is defined as a(Points : 4)

       political controversy.
       conflict between people or groups of people.
       question of whether a given claim is true or not.
       claim of truth or falsehood.

Question 3.3. (TCO 1, 2, 3) In Chapter 1, we learned the definition of the term argument. The two parts of an argument are: (Points : 4)

       proposition and issue.
       claim and question.
       explanation and reason.
       premise and conclusion.

Question 4.4. (TCOs 2, 3) In Chapter 2, we learned the meaning of inductive arguments. The support that the premises provide for the conclusion of an inductive argument is best described in terms of (Points : 4)

       valid or invalid.
       sound or unsound.
       provable or unprovable.
       strong or weak.

Question 5.5. (TCO 1, 2) In Chapter 2, we learned the meaning of the three modes of persuasion, as defined by Aristotle. Logos
refers to arguments based on (Points : 4)

       ethics and moral character.
       experiment and observations.
       passions and emotions.
       logic and reasoning.
 

Question 6.6. (TCO 6) In Chapter 2, we learned how to analyze arguments. After identifying the author’s conclusion or thesis in a passage, the next step is to (Points : 4)

       locate the reasons offered to support the conclusion.
       separate the argument from nonargumentative material.
       identify the prejudicial nature of the language of the passage.
       gather more background information.
 

Question 7.7. (TCOs 6, 7, 8, 9) In Chapter 3, we learned about the key elements of an argumentative essay. An author of a good argumentative essay should do all of the following, EXCEPT (Points : 4)

       state the position on the main issue.
       provide arguments that support the position.
       rebut arguments that support contrary positions.
       claim to speak with expertise based on qualifications or experience.

Question 8.8. (TCOs 6, 8, 9) In Chapter 3, we learned the meaning of ambiguity and the difference between semantic and syntactic ambiguous claims. Consider the following example:
?Students at DeVry enroll in thousands of courses every semester.?
 In this statement, the ambiguity used is (Points : 4)

       syntactic; confusion caused by misplaced modifiers.
       syntactic; confusion caused by improper punctuation.
       semantic; confusion caused by the meaning ofsemester.
       semantic; confusion caused by groups with individuals in the group.

Question 9.9. (TCOs 2, 6, 7, 8) In Chapter 4, we learned how to assess the credibility of claims. A disinterested party who makes a claim is one who (Points : 4)

       has no stake in our believing one way or another.
       brings weaker information to the discussion.
       lacks expertise in the content of given claims.
       brings irrelevant considerations to discussion.

Question 10.10. (TCOs 1, 6, 7, 9) In Chapter 5, we learned that it is important to recognize when a rhetorical slanting device is being used to influence our attitudes and beliefs. The purpose of the rhetorical device called a dysphemism is to replace a term with a(n) _____ meaning with one that has a(n) _____ meaning.(Points : 4)

       inappropriate; appropriate
       vague; precise
       ambiguous; clearer
       positive or neutral; negative

Question 11.11. (TCOs 1, 7) In Chapter 5, we learned that it is important to recognize when a rhetorical slanting device is being used to influence our attitudes and beliefs. The purpose of the rhetorical device called hyperbole is to (Points : 4)

       substitute a synonym for euphemism.
       to bring humor to a difficult analysis.
       exaggerating for effect.
       issue a claim based on unwarranted assumptions.

 

Question 12.12. (TCOs 1, 2) In Chapter 6, we learned that it is important to recognize when a fallacy of relevance is being used to influence our attitudes and beliefs. The inconsistency ad hominem fallacy points to a contradiction between the speaker?s argument and arguments or beliefs made by (Points : 4)

       opponents of the speaker.
       people with more credibility than the speaker.
       the speaker in the past.
       scientists who have conducted research.

Question 13.13. (TCOs 6, 7, 8) In Chapter 6, we learned that which party is responsible for the burden of proof depends upon a number of factors. The initial plausibility rule means that the burden of proof falls upon the person who (Points : 4)

       asserts a claim.
       questions a claim.
       researches a claim.
       remains uninformed about the claim.

Question 14.14. (TCOs 1, 2) In Chapter 9, we learned the basics of categorical logic. The two terms that make up the standard-form categorical claim are known as the(Points : 4)

       initial and background term.
       plain and common sense term.
       category and individual term.
       subject and predicate term.

Question 15.15. (TCOs 3, 4) In Chapter 9, we learned the basics of categorical logic. For what purpose were Venn diagrams created? (Points : 4)

       To show the primary characteristics of things
       To show how nouns and noun phrases relate
       To demonstrate the orderly processes of biology
       To give a graphic illustration of standard-form claims 

Question 16.16. (TCOs 3, 4, 8, 9) In Chapter 9, we learned the basics of categorical logic. Two claims are equivalent, if and only if, under no circumstances(Points : 4)

       both are false.
       one of them is true and the other false.
       the truth of one transfer to the other one.
       the conclusion is true if the premise is false. 

Question 17.17. (TCOs 2, 3, 4) In Chapter 9, we learned that the square of opposition is a graphic illustration of the relationship between the four standard-form categorical claims. In the square of opposition, the contrary claims are those where (Points : 4)

       both of claims cannot be true.
       both of claims cannot be false.
       the claims have the opposite truth value.
       the claims have unrelated truth values.

Question 18.18. (TCOs 2, 3, 4) In Chapter 9, we learned the basics of categorical logic, including three categorical relations: conversion, contraposition, and obversion. Conversion involves switching the places of the _____ terms. (Points : 4)

       positive and negative
       universal and particular
       subject and predicate
       A and B 

Question 19.19. (TCOs 2, 5) In Chapter 11, we learned how to evaluate inductive generalizations based on samples. The purpose of studying samples is to generalize from (Points : 4)

       one sample to another in the sample population.
       one sample to another in a different population.
       all samples in and out of the population.
       a sample to the whole population from which the sample is taken.

Question 20.20. (TCOs 2, 5) In Chapter 11, we learned how to evaluate inductive generalizations based on samples. In evaluating a sample, the two key factors that need to be addressed are sample (Points : 4)

       strength and weakness.
       size and bias.
       weight and volume.
       similarities and dissimilarities.

Question 21.21. (TCOs 1, 5, 8, 9) In Chapter 11, we learned how to evaluate inductive generalizations based on samples. A biased sample denotes a sample with attributes (Points : 4)

       present in the same proportion as the population.
       not present in the same proportion as the population.
       characteristic of people with biased opinions.
       found in a random selection process.

Question 22.22. (TCOs 1, 2, 3) In Chapter 11, we learned about the meaning and function of three principles of causal hypotheses. The common variable principle states a variable related to multiple occurrences may be(Points : 4)

       excluded as a possible causal explanation.
       considered as part of a group of possible explanations.
       included as the causal explanation.
       considered a possible effect of another causal explanation.

Question 23.23. (TCOs 2, 6) In Chapter 12, we learned the difference between moral relativism and moral absolutism. According to moral relativism, the idea of right or wrong is based on (Points : 4)

       objective moral principles.
       individual preferences.
       the beliefs of one’s group or culture.
       whatever promotes our own self-interests.

Question 24.24. (TCOs 2, 6) In Chapter 12, we learned that the deontological ethics of Immanuel Kant define moral imperatives to prescribe actions, not for the sake of some result, but simply because those actions are(Points : 4)

       moral duties.
       dictated by conscience.
       those that produce the greatest happiness.
       those actions benefit ourselves more than anyone else.

Question 25.25. (TCOs 1, 6) In Chapter 12, we learned about moral reasoning principle #2, which states in part, ?If someone appears to be violating the consistency principle, then burden of proof is on the person(Points : 4)

       observing the violation of the consistency principle.?
       violating the consistency principle.?
       anyone who is using moral reasoning.?
       people who don?t reason about morals and just accept them at face value.?