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(solution) 1. Directions: For each research description, determine the


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1. Directions: For each research description, determine the independent and dependent variables.

 

a. Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work

 

on their art. They ask artists to rate how motivated they are to paint. Then, half of the artists are

 

paid for painting and half are not. At the end of the study, the artists are asked to rate again how

 

motivated they are to paint.

 

Independent variable: Paying the artists.

 

Dependent variable: Motivation

 

b. Researchers want to see if college students are more committed to their fraternity after going

 

through a hazardous hazing ritual. Half of the pledges are put through a hazardous hazing ritual

 

and the other half are put through a non-hazardous ritual. After the ritual, all pledges are asked

 

to rate how committed they are to the fraternity.

 

Independent variable: Hazardous Hazing ritual / non-hazardous ritual.

 

Dependent variable: College student?s commitment to their fraternity.

 

c. Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions.

 

College students are asked to volunteer to consume alcohol. One group is given a single oneounce drink of alcohol (equivalent to one glass of wine, one 12-ounce beer or a one ounce shot

 

of liquor). The other group is given three one-ounce drinks (equivalent to three glasses of wine,

 

three 12-ounce beers or three one-ounce shots of liquor). Both groups are given the opportunity

 

to make risky decisions (such as whether or not to wear a seat belt while driving, etc.).

 

Independent variable: Amount of alcohol consumption.

 

Dependent variable: Risky decisions.

 

d. A researcher wants to see if a participant is more likely to conform to a larger group?s decision

 

compared to a smaller group?s decision. Half of the participants are assigned to a group of three

 

and half are assigned to a group of six. In both groups, all but the participant are a part of the

 

experiment. All are asked to look at a stimulus line and to choose from among three alternatives

 

which line on another chart matches the length of the stimulus line. All the other group

 

members go first and pick the same incorrect comparison line. Then the ?regular? participant is

 

asked to pick the comparison line that matches the stimulus line.

 

Independent variable:

 

Dependent variable:

 

e. A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests

 

with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. Each male participant is provided with photographs and hobby information for two equally physically attractive women.

 

One woman has many of the same hobbies as the male participant and the other has many

 

hobbies that are different from the male participant. The male participant is asked to rate how

 

attractive he finds each woman to be using a 10-point scale.

 

Independent variable:

 

Dependent variable:

 

2. Describe at least two key differences between a correlation study and an experiment. Include

 

a description of the use of research designs (e.g., control procedures, control groups), the ability

 

to make inferences from samples to populations, and statements of cause and effect

 

relationships.

 


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