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The impact of individual consideration on organizational commitment, with the mediation
of role clarification.
The industry of Information Technology (IT) has gained high significance and progress
all over the world. Despite this fact, many IT organizations have been tackling with the problem
of ineffective human resource retainment. As a result of this issue, there have been tremendous
turnover rates in the IT industry for the past few years. This perspective has been well
established and acknowledged by the previous surveys and research works. It is found that
highest turnover rates are present in IT industry of India, followed by that of China, Switzerland,
U.S. and Canada (Pastore, 2008). Many It professionalists tend to change their field. This factor
is most prominent among the employees having experience of one to five years. The high
turnover rate can also attributed to the fact that at this level of expertise, the employees are more
likely to find other job opportunities. Resultantly, it has been noted that the employees working
with lower skill level has the highest turnover rate of about 25 to 30 percent [Swa04]. Therefore,
it is highly essential for the It organizations to address this problem in order to overcome the
extensive turnover trend among the IT professionals.
Employee turnover is affected largely by employees? organizational commitment. An assessment
of Meyer and Allen?s three component model of organizational commitment shows that an
employee?s affective commitment to the organization was the most important component of
organizational commitment in predicting turnover intentions [Cam02]. Each component of
commitment is significantly and negatively correlated with turnover intentions and an
employee?s affective commitment to the organization is the most important component of
organizational commitment in predicting turnover intentions. Lee and Mowday (2006) found that
organizational commitment explained a significant proportion of incremental variance in
intention to leave.
In this age of accelerating attrition rates, leaders are more important than ever. An effective
leader can enhance an employee?s organizational commitment. Over the last two decades,
considerable literature has accumulated on transformational leadership [Ong07]. The present
organizational focus on revitalizing and transforming organizations to meet competitive
challenges ahead has been accompanied by increasing interest among researchers in studying
transformational leadership (Dharwadkar 2001). Such leadership is necessary for optimal
subordinate satisfaction, commitment, and performance. There exists a relationship between
transformational leadership behaviors and various outcomes measured at the individual and
organizational level [Ong07]. In addition to transformational leadership, work beliefs of an
individual could also affect his or her organizational commitment. Studies have shown a positive
relationship between work beliefs and commitment (Finegan, 2000).
In the present research work, the impact of individual consideration on organizational
commitment of employees and hence their willingness to continue to work in the organization
has been studied in the IT industry. Moreover, mediation of role clarification will be analyzed in
order to assess the impact of this feature on the relation between transformational leadership and
Need of the study
The relation of transformational leadership (TL) and organizational commitment (OC) is
of great interest in various industries. In order to study the interaction of both these factors
various studies have been conducted in different countries and industries. The mediating role of
OC on TL has been studied in shoe industry of China [Yeh12], effect of TL on OC along with
psychological empowerment has been studied in manufacturing company of Malaysia [Ibr15],
impact of TL on OC along with organizational culture has been studied in various industries of
Egypt, impact of TL on OC have been studied in various industries of world [Giv08], impact of
TL on psychological strain has been studied with mediating role of OC in manufacturing
industry of Germany [Fra11], impact of TL on OC has been studied with mediating role of
psychological empowerment of health industry in Singapore (Avoloi et al 2004), impact of TL on
OC with mediating role of management control system has been studied (Kliene and
Weibenberger 2013), impact of TL on OC has been studied in banking and food sector [Eme07],
impact of TL on OC has been studied along with mediating role of leader gender in
manufacturing company of India [Ver], impact of TL on OC has been studied extensively in
various industries [Ebr16].
In Information Technology industry, focus has been laid on identification of impact of
leadership on burn out rate of professionals (Hetland et al 2007), impact of TL on employee
performance (Pradeep and Prabhu 2011), impact of TL on OC along with work-related beliefs
[Cha09], OC in IT industry (Lumley et al 2011).
In Pakistan, limited research data is available on the topic of relation between
transformational leadership and organizational commitment. . In 2011, Sabir et al. attempted to
explore impact of TL on OC with the mediating role of employee values. In 2011, Sabir et al.
attempted to explore impact of TL on OC with the mediating role of employee values. In 2015,
Sarwar et al. disclosed the impact of TL on organizational commitment in the research and
development sector of IT industry. Hence, it is quite evident from the above discussion that
limited research has been conducted in the IT industry of Pakistan in order to study relation of
TL and OC. The aspect of individual consideration has also remained an unexplored topic in IT
industry. Moreover, the mediation of role clarification approach of team building has never been
studied in any industry and country. Thus, there is a need to understand interaction of this factor
in enhancing the relationship of individual consideration of TL and OC in the IT industry of
To determine the relationship between individual consideration and organizational
To determine the relationship between individual consideration and role clarification
To determine the relationship between role clarification approach and organizational
To determine the relationship between individual consideration and organizational
commitment with the mediation of role clarification approach.
Determination of impact laid by individual consideration, an important aspect of
transformational leadership, on the organizational commitment, with the mediating factor of role
clarification approach, a perspective of team building, in the IT industry of Nestol.
1. What is the relationship between individual consideration and organizational
2. What is the relationship between individual consideration and role clarification approach?
3. What is the relationship between role clarification approach and organizational
4. What is the relationship between individual consideration and organizational commitment
with the mediation of role clarification approach?
Significance of the study
The present study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms through which
transformational leadership behavior of managers influences organizational commitment among
IT professionals. It will help to articulate a better theoretical understanding of this relationship.
Moreover, the mediating effect of role clarification theory on this relationship will be analyzed.
It has been noted that there is high burnout rate in IT industry all over the world, at the moment
(Burnes 2006). The reason of increased dissatisfaction among the IT professionals and their
unexpected termination of the field was found to be instability in the work environment, the
absence of leadership trust and organizational commitment (Vyas & Shrivastava 2015). The
effective transformational leadership has proved to be accountable in decreasing burnout rate in
IT professionals (Hetland et al 2007). Thus, it is highly important to study effect of
transformational leadership in increasing organizational commitment, in order to enhance
retention time in IT organizations and field. Consequently, it is significant to explore various
mediating factors which can be improvised in IT industry of Pakistan to enhance this important
relationship (Sabir et al. 2011). Thus, the present study would help the leaders of IT industry to
understand their role in enhancing organizational commitment among their followers by adopting
the approach of role clarification.
Operational definitions of variables:
Individual consideration: The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as
a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs [Yeh12].
Role clarification approach: Role clarification emphasizes improving team members'
understanding of their own and others' respective roles and duties. This is intended to reduce
ambiguity and foster understanding of the importance of structure by activities aimed at defining
and adjusting roles[Sal05].
Organizational commitment: Organizational commitment indicates that individual goal is similar
or identical with organizational goals and can stimulate employees? productivity and loyalty
(Chen & Aryee, 2007).
Justification of the model
The relation between transformational leadership and organizational commitment is a
topic of interest for many previous years. Various aspects of transformational leadership and
organizational commitment have been explored in this regard [Eme07]. Moreover, the essence of
this relation has been depicted with the mediating role of factors such as psychological
empowerment [Ibr15], management control system (Kliene and Weibenberger 2013), leader?s
gender [Ver], work-related beliefs [Cha09], employee values [Sab11]. However, the factor of
team building as a mediator remain unexploited. Therefore, the present study asserts to develop a
theoretical model, encompassing of an eminent mediating factor, which remained undiscussed
somehow in the previous studies. Another justification for choosing the variables of individual
consideration, role clarification approach and organizational commitment is based on their
essential impact on IT industry (Hetland et al 2007; Pradeep and Prabhu 2011; Chandna and
Krishnan 2009; Lumley et al 2011). However, their interrelation has not yet been studied in IT
industry of Pakistan. The present study aims to fill this gap on the basis of proposed theoretical
The theoretical model of present research study is related to project management because the
relationship under study is affirmative in attaining the completion and goals of a project. With
the presence of transformational leadership and organizational commitment, it is quite difficult
for an employee to achieve defined objectives of a project or organization(Hetland et al 2007).
Similarly, team building with role clarification approach is an additional factor, which is assumed
to make this relation stronger (Pradeep and Prabhu 2011).
Hypothesis 1. Individual consideration has positively significant relation with organizational
Hypothesis 2. Individual consideration has positively significant relation with role clarification
Hypothesis 3. Role clarification approach has positively significant relation with organizational
Hypothesis 4. Individual consideration has positively significant relation with organizational
commitment, with the mediation of role clarification approach.
For this study, the research setting was IT industry of Nestol.
Sample and sampling technique
This research study will use non probability convenience sampling. The sampling frame
includes the IT industry employees of Nestol company. This study consists of a sample size with
300 respondents. The sample size was selected on the basis of easy availability and of the
potential respondents, along with the willingness of a employees to be treated as a respondent.
The present research study is quantitative. Quantitative study includes inferential and
empirical studies to generate the result with the use of statistical techniques to identify the effect
and relationship of the variables.
To evaluate the data, SPSS (Statistical packages for social sciences) will be used. To acquire the
results, descriptive technique will be used along with statistical tests of regression, reliability and