(solution) 1. The tab labeled "Grass Fire" in the Excel file contains

(solution) 1. The tab labeled "Grass Fire" in the Excel file contains

1. The tab labeled ?Grass Fire? in the Excel file contains data on vegetation plots that weresampled in grasslands subjected to high (1-2 year return interval), medium (3-5 year), andlow (20 year) fire frequency. For each plot, a 1 indicates the species was present in the plot,and a 0 indicates it was not. Use these data to test Connell?s Intermediate DisturbanceHypothesis, which predicts that the highest levels of diversity will occur in areascharacterized by intermediate disturbance frequencies. Report your findings, being careful tosummarize the methods you used, your results, and their implications with respect to thehypothesis. Feel free to include tables and figures as appropriate. Don?t read too much into the composition of individual plots, since the data were generated in a pseudo-random fashion from a larger data set. (2 marks)

2. The tab labeled ?Grass Forbs? has data on plant productivity (taken from the same area as thebiodiversity data in question 1; in g·m-2·yr-1) of grasses vs. forbs in plots of varying firefrequency. Use these data to explore the relationship between fire frequency and plantfunctional type. What is the mean proportion of grasses vs. forbs under the different firefrequencies? Assuming that productivity is proportional to biodiversity (so the highest productivity of grass corresponds to the highest grass diversity, and highest productivity of forvs ), what do they suggest is the cause of the biodiversity patterns you saw in question 1? (2 marks)

3. Calculate the Pearson correlation between mean monthly precipitation and productivity of grasses and forbs within each of the fire treatment types (i.e., each of the six columns). What do these results suggest for the relationship between moisture availability and the productivity of the two plant functional types? How do these relationships vary with timesince fire? What do they imply for the competitive dynamics within this system? (2 marks)

4. The columns Temagami A and Temagami B have data on time since fire for two regions of Temagami ? one that is more productive and has historically been managed for forestry and recreational purposes, and the other that is less productive and is part of a more remote wilderness area. Create a time since fire plot for these regions, and include it in your report(try to put them on the same graph). What do the plots suggest for the fire histories of thetwo sites? Given that they are located very near to each other, and probably experienced the same climate history, what factor(s) do you think might be responsible for the pattern that you observe? (1 mark)

5. Briefly describe two or three key messages that natural resource managers should take from Sprugel (1991). Make sure that your messages are relevant to resource managers. Sprugel has explained the ecology involved; your job is to figure out how this might influence management activities? (2 marks)

Fire Frequency: 1-2 Yrs.
1
Species
Acalypha virginica
0
Ambrosia psilotachya
1
Amorpha canescens
1
Andropogon gerardii
0
Antennaria neglecta var. neglecta
0
Asclepias stenophylla
0
Asclepias syriaca
1
Asclepias tuberosa subsp. interior
0
Asclepias verticillata
1
Asclepias viridis
1
Aster ericoides
0
Baptisia australis var. minor
0
Baptisia bracteata var. glabrescens
0
Bouteloua curtipendula
1
Carex brevior
1
Carex gravida var. lunelliana
0
Carex meadii
1
Cirsium altissimum
0
Cyperus lupulinus
0
Dalea candida var. candida
1
Desmodium sessilifolium
0
Dicanthelium acuminatum var.
1
Dichanthelium oligosanthes
0
Eragrostis spectabilis
1
Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus
0
Euphorbia glyptosperma
0
Euphorbia marginata
0
Euphorbia nutans
0
Euphorbia nutans
1
Koeleria pyramidata
0
Kuhnia eupatoroides var. corymbulosa
0
Lespedeza capitata
1
Lespedeza violacea
0
Lespedeza violacea
1
Linum sulcatum
0
Oxalis stricta
0
Panicum virgatum
1
Phenopholis obtusata var. obtusata
0
Physalis heterophylla
0
Physalis heterophylla
1
Physalis pumila
1
Poa pratensis
0
Ruellia humilis
1
Schizachyrium scoparius
0
Schrankia nuttallii
0
Sisyrinchium campestre
0
Solidago missouriensis fasciculata
0
Solidago rigida var. humilis
1
Sporobolus asper var. asper
0
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
0
Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
1
Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
1
Vernonia baldwinii var. interior
1 2
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0 3
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0 4
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1 5
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1 6
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0 7
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0 8
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0 9
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1 10 Species
0 Acalypha virginica
1 Achillea millefolium subsp. lanulosa
1 Ambrosia psilotachya
1 Amorpha canescens
0 Andropogon gerardii
1 Artemisia ludoviciana var. ludoviciana
0 Asclepias viridis
0 Aster ericoides
1 Aster oblongifolius
0 Astragalus crassicarpus var. crassicarpu
1 Baptisia australis var. minor
0 Bouteloua curtipendula
0 Bouteloua gracilis
0 Bromus inermis subsp. inermis
1 Bromus japonicus
0 Callirhoe involucrata
1 Carex brevior
0 Carex gravida var. lunelliana
0 Carex meadii
1 Cirsium undulatum
0 Cyperus lupulinus
0 Dalea candida var. candida
1 Dalea purpurea var. purpurea
1 Delphinium carolinianum subsp.
0 Desmanthus illinoensis
0 Dichanthelium oligosanthes
0 Eragrostis spectabilis
0 Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus
1 Euphorbia glyptosperma
0 Euphorbia marginata
0 Euphorbia nutans
1 Euphorbia nutans
0 Euphorbia serpens
1 Euphorbia spathulata
0 Hordeum pusillum
0 Hymenopappus scabiosaeus var.
0 Kuhnia eupatoroides var. corymbulosa
0 Lepidium densiflorum
0 Lespedeza capitata
0 Lespedeza stipulacea
1 Linum sulcatum
0 Panicum virgatum
0 Phenopholis obtusata var. obtusata
1 Physalis pumila
0 Plantago rhodosperma
0 Poa pratensis
0 Polygala verticillata
0 Psoralea esculenta
1 Ratibida columnifera
0 Rhus glabra
0 Rosa arkansana
1 Ruellia humilis
1 Salvia pitcheri
Schedonnardus paniculatus
Schizachyrium scoparius
Schrankia nuttallii
Senecio plattensis
Silene antirrhina
Solanum carolinense
Solidago rigida var. humilis
Sporobolus asper var. asper
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
Tridens flavus
Triodanis leptocarpa
Triodanis perfoliata
Verbena stricta
Verbena stricta
Vernonia baldwinii var. interior
Viola pratincola 3-5 Yrs.
11
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0 12
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0 13
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 14
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1 15
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0 16
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0 17
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0 18
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0 19
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0 20 Species
0 Acalypha virginica
0 Achillea millefolium subsp. lanulosa
1 Ambrosia psilotachya
0 Amorpha canescens
1 Andropogon gerardii
0 Artemisia ludoviciana var. ludoviciana
0 Asclepias viridis
1 Aster ericoides
0 Aster oblongifolius
0 Baptisia australis var. minor
0 Bouteloua curtipendula
1 Bouteloua gracilis
0 Bromus inermis subsp. inermis
1 Bromus japonicus
0 Callirhoe involucrata
0 Carex brevior
1 Carex gravida var. lunelliana
1 Carex meadii
1 Cyperus lupulinus
0 Dalea candida var. candida
0 Dalea purpurea var. purpurea
1 Delphinium carolinianum subsp.
0 Desmanthus illinoensis
0 Dichanthelium oligosanthes
0 Eragrostis spectabilis
1 Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus
1 Euphorbia glyptosperma
1 Euphorbia nutans
1 Euphorbia serpens
0 Hordeum pusillum
0 Hymenopappus scabiosaeus var.
1 Kuhnia eupatoroides var. corymbulosa
0 Lepidium densiflorum
0 Lespedeza capitata
1 Linum sulcatum
0 Oxalis violacea
0 Panicum virgatum
0 Physalis pumila
1 Plantago rhodosperma
1 Poa pratensis
0 Polygala verticillata
1 Ratibida columnifera
0 Rhus glabra
1 Ruellia humilis
0 Salvia pitcheri
0 Schizachyrium scoparius
0 Schrankia nuttallii
0 Silene antirrhina
0 Solanum carolinense
0 Solidago rigida var. humilis
0 Sporobolus asper var. asper
0 Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
1 Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
0 Teucrium canadense var. virginicum
0 Tridens flavus
0 Triodanis leptocarpa
0 Triodanis perfoliata
1 Verbena stricta
0 Verbena stricta
0 Vernonia baldwinii var. interior
1 Viola pratincola
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0 20 Yrs.
21
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0 22
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0 23
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0 24
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1 25
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0 26
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0 27
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0 28
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0 29
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0 30
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0 Year FRI: 1-2 yrs
FRI: 3-5 yrs.
FRI: 20 yrs.
Mean Monthly
Grass
Forbs
Grass
Forbs
Grass
Forbs
Precip (mm)
1984
463.06
24.00
329.82
62.97
226.44
122.07
98.82
1985
538.62
14.88
312.03
90.06
193.15
108.89
106.97
1986
433.09
15.70
331.92
67.29
247.90
73.22
113.50
1987
526.32
42.51
424.34
138.21
242.66
144.54
81.00
1988
384.78
18.04
246.86
101.84
239.89
178.61
61.67
1989
288.85
9.70
117.92
69.16
125.48
131.68
60.00
1990
651.26
22.84
269.44
117.19
214.73
176.03
51.92
1991
495.88
29.83
421.93
196.55
246.16
365.30
202.33
1992
672.90
12.15
337.60
133.55
177.08
359.77
202.03
1993
718.50
18.70
327.44
164.03
182.85
127.61
392.98
1994
511.56
6.84
455.01
156.24
111.27
182.22
262.68
1995
748.81
12.83
406.27
236.94
179.02
217.93
362.77
1996
608.48
54.10
290.31
114.62
151.16
182.45
236.38
1997
411.21
17.84
180.38
136.14
105.24
212.89
250.83
1998
627.39
22.71
361.96
159.45
175.44
271.66
302.50
1999
568.97
7.08
188.96
151.68
155.81
234.12
328.67 Year Algonquin
Cum. Prop.
1997 0.980199
1992 0.935359
1991 0.90501
1990 0.876875
1983 0.836793
1967 0.719563
1964 0.698084
1959 0.646583
1942 0.56104
1940 0.550001
1937 0.519292
1935 0.507178
1920 0.442933
1912 0.408183
1904 0.37645
1897 0.354975
1880 0.307649
1879 0.297268
1877 0.290492
1867 0.269283
1859 0.246824
1857 0.236987
1846 0.219438
1838 0.195192
1829 0.176334
1816 0.159426
1788 0.120786
1784 0.1165655
1777 0.104601
1756 0.087332
1753 0.083993
1749 0.080967
1744 0.077932
1733 0.070193
1726 0.065102
1716 0.059776
1714 0.057463
1707 0.051953
1701 0.050979
1698 0.048157
1690 0.045514
1674 0.039616
1673 0.038577
1657 0.031585
1644 0.028676
1643 0.027944
1628 0.023923
1623 0.022862
1621 0.022448
1611 0.020783
1605 0.019138
1599 0.018119
1591 0.016661
1572 0.013945
1563 0.012839 Killarney
Cum. Prop.
2000 0.980199
1985 0.761545
1983 0.712063
1974 0.599719
1969 0.548263
1954 0.411457
1950 0.370291
1936 0.280146
1930 0.246751
1927 0.235768
1924 0.222053
1919 0.203073
1903 0.144831
1886 0.104239
1881 0.094337
1877 0.085451
1867 0.071039
1851 0.051826
1848 0.047933
1838 0.039729
1823 0.029335
1812 0.02372
1808 0.02201
1804 0.019968
1792 0.01625
1786 0.014385
1781 0.012601
1773 0.01085
1767 0.009663 Temagami A
Temagami B
Year
Cum. Prop. ear
Y
Cum. Prop.
2000 0.98895
2000 0.99095
1995 0.959059
1993 0.987353
1991 0.910592
1982 0.967802
1987 0.876095
1978 0.960789
1983 0.832754
1968 0.943478
1979 0.802556
1968 0.943478
1975 0.761194
1957 0.924796
1970 0.71926
1956 0.923116
1965 0.683303
1952 0.916427
1958 0.627791
1950 0.913101
1954 0.608772
1945 0.904837
1951 0.584091
1938 0.893394
1948 0.566218
1922 0.867779
1942 0.527058
1921 0.866203
1938 0.507286
1916 0.858364
1935 0.485857
1898 0.830727
1927 0.449544
1892 0.802519
1920 0.411501
1880 0.740818
1915 0.393028
1875 0.716531
1911 0.373352
1867 0.679317
1907 0.358299
1862 0.657047
1903 0.341861
1859 0.644036
1896 0.315263
1839 0.563643
1892 0.302205
1830 0.530819
1889 0.292877
1827 0.520309
1877 0.254988
1815 0.480305
1868 0.233373
1795 0.42035
1865 0.22369
1784 0.390628
1858 0.208394
1771 0.358199
1851 0.192118
1754 0.319819
1848 0.185334
1741 0.293269
1846 0.180673
1733 0.278037
1842 0.173736
1725 0.263597
1838 0.165454
1712 0.241714
1834 0.15893
1700 0.22313
1824 0.141895
1697 0.218712
1821 0.137565
1689 0.207353
1817 0.131513
1683 0.199222
1813 0.125736
1669 0.18147
1806 0.116239
1664 0.17552
1803 0.112835
1657 0.167518
1799 0.108191
1635 0.144665
1797 0.105431
1622 0.132655
1793 0.101175
1619 0.130029
1789 0.095903
1787 0.094419
1776 0.083011
1769 0.076987
1760 0.069674
1750 0.063068
1743 0.057867
1739 0.055743
1728 0.048849
1712 0.040879
1709 0.039563
1698 0.035218
1689 0.03179
1686 0.030875
1675 0.027411
1668 0.025035
1658 0.022546
1652 0.021289
1641
0.0186
1629 0.01634
1622 0.015145
1619 0.014634
1616 0.014141
1613 0.013634
1603 0.012219
1600 0.011822
1586 0.010136
1584 0.009889