Question Details

(solution) 1. The tab labeled "Grass Fire" in the Excel file contains


1. The tab labeled ?Grass Fire? in the Excel file contains data on vegetation plots that weresampled in grasslands subjected to high (1-2 year return interval), medium (3-5 year), andlow (20 year) fire frequency. For each plot, a 1 indicates the species was present in the plot,and a 0 indicates it was not. Use these data to test Connell?s Intermediate DisturbanceHypothesis, which predicts that the highest levels of diversity will occur in areascharacterized by intermediate disturbance frequencies. Report your findings, being careful tosummarize the methods you used, your results, and their implications with respect to thehypothesis. Feel free to include tables and figures as appropriate. Don?t read too much into the composition of individual plots, since the data were generated in a pseudo-random fashion from a larger data set. (2 marks)


2. The tab labeled ?Grass Forbs? has data on plant productivity (taken from the same area as thebiodiversity data in question 1; in g·m-2·yr-1) of grasses vs. forbs in plots of varying firefrequency. Use these data to explore the relationship between fire frequency and plantfunctional type. What is the mean proportion of grasses vs. forbs under the different firefrequencies? Assuming that productivity is proportional to biodiversity (so the highest productivity of grass corresponds to the highest grass diversity, and highest productivity of forvs ), what do they suggest is the cause of the biodiversity patterns you saw in question 1? (2 marks)


3. Calculate the Pearson correlation between mean monthly precipitation and productivity of grasses and forbs within each of the fire treatment types (i.e., each of the six columns). What do these results suggest for the relationship between moisture availability and the productivity of the two plant functional types? How do these relationships vary with timesince fire? What do they imply for the competitive dynamics within this system? (2 marks)


4. The columns Temagami A and Temagami B have data on time since fire for two regions of Temagami ? one that is more productive and has historically been managed for forestry and recreational purposes, and the other that is less productive and is part of a more remote wilderness area. Create a time since fire plot for these regions, and include it in your report(try to put them on the same graph). What do the plots suggest for the fire histories of thetwo sites? Given that they are located very near to each other, and probably experienced the same climate history, what factor(s) do you think might be responsible for the pattern that you observe? (1 mark)


5. Briefly describe two or three key messages that natural resource managers should take from Sprugel (1991). Make sure that your messages are relevant to resource managers. Sprugel has explained the ecology involved; your job is to figure out how this might influence management activities? (2 marks)



Fire Frequency: 1-2 Yrs.

 

1

 

Species

 

Acalypha virginica

 

0

 

Ambrosia psilotachya

 

1

 

Amorpha canescens

 

1

 

Andropogon gerardii

 

0

 

Antennaria neglecta var. neglecta

 

0

 

Asclepias stenophylla

 

0

 

Asclepias syriaca

 

1

 

Asclepias tuberosa subsp. interior

 

0

 

Asclepias verticillata

 

1

 

Asclepias viridis

 

1

 

Aster ericoides

 

0

 

Baptisia australis var. minor

 

0

 

Baptisia bracteata var. glabrescens

 

0

 

Bouteloua curtipendula

 

1

 

Carex brevior

 

1

 

Carex gravida var. lunelliana

 

0

 

Carex meadii

 

1

 

Cirsium altissimum

 

0

 

Cyperus lupulinus

 

0

 

Dalea candida var. candida

 

1

 

Desmodium sessilifolium

 

0

 

Dicanthelium acuminatum var.

 

1

 

Dichanthelium oligosanthes

 

0

 

Eragrostis spectabilis

 

1

 

Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus

 

0

 

Euphorbia glyptosperma

 

0

 

Euphorbia marginata

 

0

 

Euphorbia nutans

 

0

 

Euphorbia nutans

 

1

 

Koeleria pyramidata

 

0

 

Kuhnia eupatoroides var. corymbulosa

 

0

 

Lespedeza capitata

 

1

 

Lespedeza violacea

 

0

 

Lespedeza violacea

 

1

 

Linum sulcatum

 

0

 

Oxalis stricta

 

0

 

Panicum virgatum

 

1

 

Phenopholis obtusata var. obtusata

 

0

 

Physalis heterophylla

 

0

 

Physalis heterophylla

 

1

 

Physalis pumila

 

1

 

Poa pratensis

 

0

 

Ruellia humilis

 

1

 

Schizachyrium scoparius

 

0

 

Schrankia nuttallii

 

0

 

Sisyrinchium campestre

 

0

 

Solidago missouriensis fasciculata

 

0

 

Solidago rigida var. humilis

 

1

 

Sporobolus asper var. asper

 

0

 

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus

 

0

 

Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

1

 

Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

1

 

Vernonia baldwinii var. interior

 

1 2

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0 3

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

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1

 

1

 

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1

 

0

 

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1

 

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0

 

1

 

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0

 

0

 

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1

 

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1

 

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0 4

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

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0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

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0

 

0

 

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1 5

 

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0

 

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0

 

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1

 

1

 

0

 

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1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1 6

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0 7

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

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0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

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0

 

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0

 

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1

 

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0

 

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0 8

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

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0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

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0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

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0

 

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0

 

0

 

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0

 

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0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0 9

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

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1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1 10 Species

 

0 Acalypha virginica

 

1 Achillea millefolium subsp. lanulosa

 

1 Ambrosia psilotachya

 

1 Amorpha canescens

 

0 Andropogon gerardii

 

1 Artemisia ludoviciana var. ludoviciana

 

0 Asclepias viridis

 

0 Aster ericoides

 

1 Aster oblongifolius

 

0 Astragalus crassicarpus var. crassicarpu

 

1 Baptisia australis var. minor

 

0 Bouteloua curtipendula

 

0 Bouteloua gracilis

 

0 Bromus inermis subsp. inermis

 

1 Bromus japonicus

 

0 Callirhoe involucrata

 

1 Carex brevior

 

0 Carex gravida var. lunelliana

 

0 Carex meadii

 

1 Cirsium undulatum

 

0 Cyperus lupulinus

 

0 Dalea candida var. candida

 

1 Dalea purpurea var. purpurea

 

1 Delphinium carolinianum subsp.

 

0 Desmanthus illinoensis

 

0 Dichanthelium oligosanthes

 

0 Eragrostis spectabilis

 

0 Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus

 

1 Euphorbia glyptosperma

 

0 Euphorbia marginata

 

0 Euphorbia nutans

 

1 Euphorbia nutans

 

0 Euphorbia serpens

 

1 Euphorbia spathulata

 

0 Hordeum pusillum

 

0 Hymenopappus scabiosaeus var.

 

0 Kuhnia eupatoroides var. corymbulosa

 

0 Lepidium densiflorum

 

0 Lespedeza capitata

 

0 Lespedeza stipulacea

 

1 Linum sulcatum

 

0 Panicum virgatum

 

0 Phenopholis obtusata var. obtusata

 

1 Physalis pumila

 

0 Plantago rhodosperma

 

0 Poa pratensis

 

0 Polygala verticillata

 

0 Psoralea esculenta

 

1 Ratibida columnifera

 

0 Rhus glabra

 

0 Rosa arkansana

 

1 Ruellia humilis

 

1 Salvia pitcheri

 

Schedonnardus paniculatus

 

Schizachyrium scoparius

 

Schrankia nuttallii

 

Senecio plattensis

 

Silene antirrhina

 

Solanum carolinense

 

Solidago rigida var. humilis

 

Sporobolus asper var. asper

 

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus

 

Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

Tridens flavus

 

Triodanis leptocarpa

 

Triodanis perfoliata

 

Verbena stricta

 

Verbena stricta

 

Vernonia baldwinii var. interior

 

Viola pratincola 3-5 Yrs.

 

11

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

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1

 

0

 

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0 12

 

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1

 

1

 

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0

 

1

 

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0

 

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1

 

0

 

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1

 

1

 

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0 13

 

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1 14

 

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1

 

0 20 Species

 

0 Acalypha virginica

 

0 Achillea millefolium subsp. lanulosa

 

1 Ambrosia psilotachya

 

0 Amorpha canescens

 

1 Andropogon gerardii

 

0 Artemisia ludoviciana var. ludoviciana

 

0 Asclepias viridis

 

1 Aster ericoides

 

0 Aster oblongifolius

 

0 Baptisia australis var. minor

 

0 Bouteloua curtipendula

 

1 Bouteloua gracilis

 

0 Bromus inermis subsp. inermis

 

1 Bromus japonicus

 

0 Callirhoe involucrata

 

0 Carex brevior

 

1 Carex gravida var. lunelliana

 

1 Carex meadii

 

1 Cyperus lupulinus

 

0 Dalea candida var. candida

 

0 Dalea purpurea var. purpurea

 

1 Delphinium carolinianum subsp.

 

0 Desmanthus illinoensis

 

0 Dichanthelium oligosanthes

 

0 Eragrostis spectabilis

 

1 Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus

 

1 Euphorbia glyptosperma

 

1 Euphorbia nutans

 

1 Euphorbia serpens

 

0 Hordeum pusillum

 

0 Hymenopappus scabiosaeus var.

 

1 Kuhnia eupatoroides var. corymbulosa

 

0 Lepidium densiflorum

 

0 Lespedeza capitata

 

1 Linum sulcatum

 

0 Oxalis violacea

 

0 Panicum virgatum

 

0 Physalis pumila

 

1 Plantago rhodosperma

 

1 Poa pratensis

 

0 Polygala verticillata

 

1 Ratibida columnifera

 

0 Rhus glabra

 

1 Ruellia humilis

 

0 Salvia pitcheri

 

0 Schizachyrium scoparius

 

0 Schrankia nuttallii

 

0 Silene antirrhina

 

0 Solanum carolinense

 

0 Solidago rigida var. humilis

 

0 Sporobolus asper var. asper

 

0 Symphoricarpos orbiculatus

 

1 Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

0 Teucrium canadense var. virginicum

 

0 Tridens flavus

 

0 Triodanis leptocarpa

 

0 Triodanis perfoliata

 

1 Verbena stricta

 

0 Verbena stricta

 

0 Vernonia baldwinii var. interior

 

1 Viola pratincola

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0 20 Yrs.

 

21

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0 22

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0 23

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0 24

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1 25

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0 26

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0 27

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0 28

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0 29

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0 30

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

0 Year FRI: 1-2 yrs

 

FRI: 3-5 yrs.

 

FRI: 20 yrs.

 

Mean Monthly

 

Grass

 

Forbs

 

Grass

 

Forbs

 

Grass

 

Forbs

 

Precip (mm)

 

1984

 

463.06

 

24.00

 

329.82

 

62.97

 

226.44

 

122.07

 

98.82

 

1985

 

538.62

 

14.88

 

312.03

 

90.06

 

193.15

 

108.89

 

106.97

 

1986

 

433.09

 

15.70

 

331.92

 

67.29

 

247.90

 

73.22

 

113.50

 

1987

 

526.32

 

42.51

 

424.34

 

138.21

 

242.66

 

144.54

 

81.00

 

1988

 

384.78

 

18.04

 

246.86

 

101.84

 

239.89

 

178.61

 

61.67

 

1989

 

288.85

 

9.70

 

117.92

 

69.16

 

125.48

 

131.68

 

60.00

 

1990

 

651.26

 

22.84

 

269.44

 

117.19

 

214.73

 

176.03

 

51.92

 

1991

 

495.88

 

29.83

 

421.93

 

196.55

 

246.16

 

365.30

 

202.33

 

1992

 

672.90

 

12.15

 

337.60

 

133.55

 

177.08

 

359.77

 

202.03

 

1993

 

718.50

 

18.70

 

327.44

 

164.03

 

182.85

 

127.61

 

392.98

 

1994

 

511.56

 

6.84

 

455.01

 

156.24

 

111.27

 

182.22

 

262.68

 

1995

 

748.81

 

12.83

 

406.27

 

236.94

 

179.02

 

217.93

 

362.77

 

1996

 

608.48

 

54.10

 

290.31

 

114.62

 

151.16

 

182.45

 

236.38

 

1997

 

411.21

 

17.84

 

180.38

 

136.14

 

105.24

 

212.89

 

250.83

 

1998

 

627.39

 

22.71

 

361.96

 

159.45

 

175.44

 

271.66

 

302.50

 

1999

 

568.97

 

7.08

 

188.96

 

151.68

 

155.81

 

234.12

 

328.67 Year Algonquin

 

Cum. Prop.

 

1997 0.980199

 

1992 0.935359

 

1991 0.90501

 

1990 0.876875

 

1983 0.836793

 

1967 0.719563

 

1964 0.698084

 

1959 0.646583

 

1942 0.56104

 

1940 0.550001

 

1937 0.519292

 

1935 0.507178

 

1920 0.442933

 

1912 0.408183

 

1904 0.37645

 

1897 0.354975

 

1880 0.307649

 

1879 0.297268

 

1877 0.290492

 

1867 0.269283

 

1859 0.246824

 

1857 0.236987

 

1846 0.219438

 

1838 0.195192

 

1829 0.176334

 

1816 0.159426

 

1788 0.120786

 

1784 0.1165655

 

1777 0.104601

 

1756 0.087332

 

1753 0.083993

 

1749 0.080967

 

1744 0.077932

 

1733 0.070193

 

1726 0.065102

 

1716 0.059776

 

1714 0.057463

 

1707 0.051953

 

1701 0.050979

 

1698 0.048157

 

1690 0.045514

 

1674 0.039616

 

1673 0.038577

 

1657 0.031585

 

1644 0.028676

 

1643 0.027944

 

1628 0.023923

 

1623 0.022862

 

1621 0.022448

 

1611 0.020783

 

1605 0.019138

 

1599 0.018119

 

1591 0.016661

 

1572 0.013945

 

1563 0.012839 Killarney

 

Cum. Prop.

 

2000 0.980199

 

1985 0.761545

 

1983 0.712063

 

1974 0.599719

 

1969 0.548263

 

1954 0.411457

 

1950 0.370291

 

1936 0.280146

 

1930 0.246751

 

1927 0.235768

 

1924 0.222053

 

1919 0.203073

 

1903 0.144831

 

1886 0.104239

 

1881 0.094337

 

1877 0.085451

 

1867 0.071039

 

1851 0.051826

 

1848 0.047933

 

1838 0.039729

 

1823 0.029335

 

1812 0.02372

 

1808 0.02201

 

1804 0.019968

 

1792 0.01625

 

1786 0.014385

 

1781 0.012601

 

1773 0.01085

 

1767 0.009663 Temagami A

 

Temagami B

 

Year

 

Cum. Prop. ear

 

Y

 

Cum. Prop.

 

2000 0.98895

 

2000 0.99095

 

1995 0.959059

 

1993 0.987353

 

1991 0.910592

 

1982 0.967802

 

1987 0.876095

 

1978 0.960789

 

1983 0.832754

 

1968 0.943478

 

1979 0.802556

 

1968 0.943478

 

1975 0.761194

 

1957 0.924796

 

1970 0.71926

 

1956 0.923116

 

1965 0.683303

 

1952 0.916427

 

1958 0.627791

 

1950 0.913101

 

1954 0.608772

 

1945 0.904837

 

1951 0.584091

 

1938 0.893394

 

1948 0.566218

 

1922 0.867779

 

1942 0.527058

 

1921 0.866203

 

1938 0.507286

 

1916 0.858364

 

1935 0.485857

 

1898 0.830727

 

1927 0.449544

 

1892 0.802519

 

1920 0.411501

 

1880 0.740818

 

1915 0.393028

 

1875 0.716531

 

1911 0.373352

 

1867 0.679317

 

1907 0.358299

 

1862 0.657047

 

1903 0.341861

 

1859 0.644036

 

1896 0.315263

 

1839 0.563643

 

1892 0.302205

 

1830 0.530819

 

1889 0.292877

 

1827 0.520309

 

1877 0.254988

 

1815 0.480305

 

1868 0.233373

 

1795 0.42035

 

1865 0.22369

 

1784 0.390628

 

1858 0.208394

 

1771 0.358199

 

1851 0.192118

 

1754 0.319819

 

1848 0.185334

 

1741 0.293269

 

1846 0.180673

 

1733 0.278037

 

1842 0.173736

 

1725 0.263597

 

1838 0.165454

 

1712 0.241714

 

1834 0.15893

 

1700 0.22313

 

1824 0.141895

 

1697 0.218712

 

1821 0.137565

 

1689 0.207353

 

1817 0.131513

 

1683 0.199222

 

1813 0.125736

 

1669 0.18147

 

1806 0.116239

 

1664 0.17552

 

1803 0.112835

 

1657 0.167518

 

1799 0.108191

 

1635 0.144665

 

1797 0.105431

 

1622 0.132655

 

1793 0.101175

 

1619 0.130029

 

1789 0.095903

 

1787 0.094419

 

1776 0.083011

 

1769 0.076987

 

1760 0.069674

 

1750 0.063068

 

1743 0.057867

 

1739 0.055743

 

1728 0.048849

 

1712 0.040879

 

1709 0.039563

 

1698 0.035218

 

1689 0.03179

 

1686 0.030875

 

1675 0.027411

 

1668 0.025035

 

1658 0.022546

 

1652 0.021289

 

1641

 

0.0186

 

1629 0.01634

 

1622 0.015145

 

1619 0.014634

 

1616 0.014141

 

1613 0.013634

 

1603 0.012219

 

1600 0.011822

 

1586 0.010136

 

1584 0.009889

 


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