(solution) Name Date Class Lab 25: Color in Light Color in Light Purpose To

(solution) Name Date Class Lab 25: Color in Light Color in Light Purpose To

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Name Date Class Lab 25: Color in Light Color in Light Purpose
To observe light color addition and subtraction through ?lters,
receptors in the eye, different types of color blindness, and prisms Background
Throughout the ages, philosophers and scientists speculated about
the substances that made up everything in the universe. Color was
one of the properties that was not fully understood, as evidenced by
the early belief that there were different colored atoms: blue atoms
and green atoms and atoms of every color made up the colors of
objects that we can see.
Isaac Newton was the ?rst person on record to study light and its
connection with the colors that we observe. He used prisms to break
white light into its component wavelengths. Then, by recombining
these component wavelengths, Newton came to understand that all
of the colors together made up white light. Our understanding today
of how different eyes detect color differently is largely due to early
explorations with ?lters and prisms in ingenious optical setups. Skills Focus
Observing, predicting, applying concepts, controlling variables,
drawing conclusions Procedure
1. Start Virtual Physics and select Color in Light from the list of assignments.
The lab will open in the Optics laboratory.
2. The laboratory will be set up with a garden gnome on an optics
table with a detector, or virtual eye, in front of it. The white line on
the table shows the direction of the light leaving the object and
bouncing into the eye. Observe the image in the Virtual Eye
display.
3. Predicting What do you think you will see in the detector window
if a red ?lter is placed between it and the object? ISBN 1-269-73240-4
Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date Class 80 Color in Light Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date Class 5. Predicting
What colors do you think you will you see if a blue
?lter is also placed in the light path, in addition to the red ?lter? 6. If all light but the blue light has been ?ltered out, and then a red
?lter is also applied, what color do you think you would see? Right
click on the ?lters and click the red and blue ?lter check boxes to
test your prediction. What do you observe? ISBN 1-269-73240-4 7. Applying Concepts Now pull the ?lter off the table in any
direction to return it to the counter. In the Virtual Eye detector
screen you can see checked boxes labeled with the primary colors
of red, green and blue. These control the color receptors in the
eye. Unchecking any of the boxes turns off the receptors that can
detect the chosen colors. Experiment with turning on and off
various colors and report your ?ndings about color subtraction. Color in Light 4. Observing
Filters block all light except the light that is the
color of the ?lter itself. Pick up the ?lters from the counter and
place them in the light path. The gray rectangular part of the piece
is the part that needs to be in the light path. The ?lters ?ip up into
that structure when engaged. Right click on the ?lters and click
the red ?lter check box. Were you correct in your prediction? What
is visible to the eye? Flip the ?lter in and out and compare the
different parts of the gnome to see what happens to the different
colors when viewed through the ?lter. Why do you think some
parts of the gnome look black, while other parts, like the pillar,
look red? Name Date Class
Color in Light 81 Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Color in Light Name Date Class 8. Colorblindness occurs when certain color receptors in the eye
don?t work
as they should. Experiment with the two main types of colorblindness: redgreen and blue-yellow, and report how the colorblindness affects the
observed colors of the gnome. Select a colorblindness type by checking
each of the types in the Virtual Eye detector screen. 9. Controlling Variables Click on the Clipboard on the right
hand side of the table to bring up a list of preset experiments.
Select Experiment 12: Color Addition and Subtraction. The table
is now set up with white light shining through four triangleshaped prisms to diffuse the colors of the rainbow and a slit
control in the center of the table to block out portions of the
rainbow before the light is recombined through more prisms.
Drag the second prism farther down on the mounted base to
spread out the beam of light more. In the Virtual Eye, uncheck
the Grid box to be able to see the light beam better. Move the
windows, so you can see the display in the Virtual Eye, and the
laboratory view at the same time. Change the amount of light
passing through the slits by clicking the up and down green
arrows on the shutter device. What color do you see when you
add just red through yellow?
What color results when you combine yellow through blue?
What colors do you need to add to produce a light purple?
10. Drawing Conclusions You have been experimenting with
color addition and subtraction and the additive primary colors.
Explain what happens when you add all of the colors together.
Where do you see color addition of light occurring in your daily
experience? ISBN 1-269-73240-4 Name Date Class 82 Color in Light Lab 26: Re?ection and Refraction of Light
Purpose
To compare the re?ection of light from ?at and curved mirrors and to
study the refraction of light through a lens Background
What is the difference between a mirror and a lens? Light bounces, or
re?ects,
off a mirror but passes through a lens. Mirrors and lenses
have many different uses due to these properties. Mirrors are often used
to allow people to see their
re?ections or to see things in places or at angles that you couldn?t see
otherwise. Lenses are used commonly to magnify images, correct
vision, or to focus light into a beam. These properties have been used
for centuries as people discovered re?ective surfaces and developed
the ?rst cameras and spectacles. Skills Focus
Predicting, observing, applying concepts, controlling variables,
drawing conclusions Procedure
1. Start Virtual Physics and select Re?ection and Refraction of Light
from the list of assignments. The lab will open in the Optics
laboratory.
2. The laboratory will be set up with a light bulb on an optics table with
a ?at mirror in front of it. An eye will be set up on the table to be used
as a
detector, to observe how light is re?ected from the mirror. You will Name Date Class observe re?ected light from various angles to determine how images
are re?ected in
a ?at mirror. You will then compare those to the re?ections from
curved mirrors. You will also study how light refracts through
lenses.
3. Predicting
What do you think you will see in the detector
window if it is facing the direction of the re?ected light? 4. Observing What do you notice about the relationship between (1) the angle of the light coming in to the mirror relative to the normal,
which is a line perpendicular to the mirror ?s surface, and (2) the
angle of the light
re?ecting off the mirror? Hold up a piece of paper on the screen and position ISBN 0­558­83901­0 it as the normal would be to help you compare the angles. Re?ection and Refraction of Light 83 Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Prentice Hall.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date Class Name Date Class 5. Change the angle of the light striking the mirror by rotating the mirror. You
can do this by moving the cursor over the mirror until a rotation
control appears and increasing the angle by dragging the cursor in the
direction you want the mirror rotated, or by clicking on the arrows.
Now compare the
angle of the incident light (the light striking the mirror) with the angle
of the re?ected light. How have the angles changed? 6. Applying Concepts The law of re?ection explains the phenomenon that
you just observed?that the angle of incidence always equals the
angle of re?ection. Do you think this will change if the mirror is a
curved mirror? Predict how the angle of re?ection will compare with
the angle of incidence
if the mirror is curved. 7. Test your prediction by right clicking on the mirror and unchecking the Flat
box and changing the radius of curvature (r) to 60 cm. This is a
concave mirror, which is what is used in a ?ashlight to focus light
into a narrow beam of light. Record your observations of the angle
of re?ection and the beam diameter below. 8. Now change the mirror into a convex mirror by altering the radius of
curvature to -50 cm. Note your observations of the angle of
re?ection and the beam diameter below. Name 9. Observing Date Class Now you will observe refraction with a lens. Pick up the detector and drag it off the table to return it to the counter. Change the
mirror back into a ?at mirror by clicking the Flat box. Pick up another
mirror and place it on the table in the beam path re?ected off the
?rst mirror. Rotate the second mirror to an angle of around 0
degrees, where it re?ects the light down at an angle onto the table,
just not facing directly along a line of pins. Pull out a lens and place it
in the beam path. What do you observe about the incident angle of
the light on the lens and the angle of the transmitted light
on the other side of the lens? ISBN 0­558­83901­0 84 Re?ection and Refraction of Light Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Prentice Hall.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date Class Name Date Class 10. Light is refracted, or bent, as it travels through lenses of different materials.
What is the index of refraction of the lens? The index is found in
the lens variable panel by right clicking on the lens and noting the
value of n. The index of refraction of air is approximately 1. 11. Change the index of refraction to 1 and report how the transmitted angle
changes from the previous de?ection. 12. Controlling Variables
to Increase the index of refraction gradually from 1 10 and report on how the de?ection angle changes. 13. Drawing Conclusions Click the Reset Lab button in upper left corner to clear the table. Pull down the prism platform and release and it will
snap into place on the table. Bring down the light bulb also and
release it on the left side of the table. Click on the bottom prism on
the stand and pull it
down to the bottom of the base. Observe the way the beam of light bends
as it passes through the ?rst prism and then on to the second
prism. Describe what you observe from what you understand Name Date Class about refraction. ISBN 0­558­83901­0 Mention how the light bends with respect to the normal for each face
of the prism. Re?ection and Refraction of Light 85 Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Prentice Hall.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date Class Lab 28: Diffraction and Interference
Purpose
To study single slit diffraction and double slit interference patterns Background
It has long been known that if you shine light through narrow slits that
are spaced at small intervals, the light will form a diffraction pattern. A
diffraction pattern is a series of light and dark areas caused by wave
interference. The
wave interference can be either constructive (light areas) or destructive
(dark areas). In this experiment, you will shine a laser through a device
with two slits where the spacing can be adjusted and investigate the
patterns that are
produced on the far side of the slits. Skills Focus
Predicting, drawing conclusions, observing, interpreting data,
making generalizations, applying concepts Procedure
1. Start Virtual Physics and select Diffraction and Interference from
the list of assignments. The lab will open in the Quantum
laboratory.
2. A laser is used as the light source in this experiment because it has a
single wavelength. Therefore, you will not see diffraction patterns
from other wavelengths interfering in the image. What is the
wavelength of the laser? What is the spacing of the two slits on the two slit device? This is the gap
between the two different slits. How do the wavelength of the laser
and the spacing of the slits compare? Name 3. Predicting Date Class How will the diffraction pattern change as the wavelength is ISBN 0­558­83901­0 made smaller and the slit spacing remains the same? Hint: Think
about the spacing as an obstacle that the waves are running into. Diffraction and Interference 89 Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Prentice Hall.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date 4. Drawing Conclusions Class Observe the pattern displayed on the video screen as you reduce the wavelength to 600 nm and then down to 300 nm
by one- hundred nanometer increments. Click on the down arrow
below the hundreds place to change these values. What can you
state about the relationship between wavelength and diffraction
pattern when the wavelength is greater than the obstacle? 5. Observing Now you will investigate other interference effects. Once you spread out the slits farther, you can start to see interference when
waves passing through the two different slits interfere with each
other. Change the wavelength of the laser to 500 nm and the slit
spacing to 3?m. Describe what you observe. What is causing this
effect? 6. Change the intensity of the laser from 1 nW to 1W. Does the intensity of the
light affect the diffraction pattern? 7. Interpreting Data Change the slit spacing to 1 ?m. Then observe the pattern displayed on the video screen as you change the slit spacing from
1 ?m to 7 ?m by one-micrometer increments. What can you state
about the relationship between slit spacing and diffraction pattern? Name Date Class 8. Return the slit spacing to 3 ?m. Increase the wavelength of the laser to 700 nm.
What affect does an increase in the wavelength have on the
interference pattern? ISBN 0­558­83901­0 90 Diffraction and Interference Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Prentice Hall.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date Class 9. Making Generalizations Decrease the intensity on the laser to 1000
photons/second. Click on the Persist button (the button with a black arrow)
on the video camera to look at individual photons coming through the
slits. Observe for one minute. What observation can you make about this
pattern
as compared to the pattern from the continuous beam of photons? 10. Decrease the intensity to 100 photons/second. Observe for another minute
after clicking Persist. At these lower intensities (1,000 and 100
photons/ second), there is never a time when two photons go
through both slits at the same time. How can a single photon
diffract? 11. From this experiment, what conclusions can you make about the nature of
light? Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Name Date Class 12. Applying Concepts Click in the Stockroom. Click on the Clipboard and
select Preset Experiment 8: Two-Slit Diffraction?Electrons. Click the green
Return to Lab arrow. This setup is similar to the previous one, except that
the source is emitting electrons, rather than photons of light, so the detector ISBN 0­558­83901­0 is a phosphor screen which can detect charged particles. How does
this diffraction pattern compare to the diffraction pattern for light? Diffraction and Interference 91 Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Prentice Hall.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Virtual Physics Lab Workbook, by Brian F. Woodfield, Steven Haderlie, Heather J. McKnight, and Bradley D. Moser. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.