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(solution) These procedural methods are often based on environmental


I have some sort of easy question/assignment that I was hoping to get a second eye on. If you have time this weekend, can you take a look at it for me? There is a table attached to the exercise that gives clues on what each represents. THanks.



These procedural methods are often based on environmental quantitative assessment tools, the most commonly

 

used of which are described as follows:

 

? A life cycle assessment (LCA) quantifies a large number of resource uses, substance flows, and environmental

 

accumulations to estimate multiple environmental impacts associated with a given function.

 

? A substance flow analysis (SFA) quantifies the flows and environmental accumulation of either a single substance,

 

such as mercury, or a group of substances, such as inorganic nitrate compounds.

 

? A risk assessment (RA) studies the risk or the probability of severe impacts occurring from an installation (such as

 

a nuclear power plant) or the risks of using a chemical substance.

 

? A material flow analysis (MFA) tracks the flow of material in the economy of a given region. This is usually a raw

 

material, such as paper, glass, concrete, or plastics.

 

? A carbon footprint (CF) determines the direct and indirect emissions of greenhouse gases due to a product, a

 

human activity, or a business.

 

? A water footprint (WF) determines the impacts associated with water as an area of concern, including water

 

usage and environmental exposures related to water quality. Decide which assessment method listed in Table 2.1 is most appropriate for the following situations. List

 

key reasons for using this method, and find an appropriate metric/basis for comparison.

 

1. An electricity company is investing $50 million to integrate photovoltaics into the design of

 

commercial and residential buildings. It wants to estimate the environmental benefits of this design,

 

assuming 1000 buildings will be constructed around the country.

 

2. An airline company would like to optimize its company?s greenhouse gas emissions.

 

3. You need decide whether to use paper or plastic bags to carry your groceries home.

 

4. An electricity company is deciding in which of two cities to build its new power plant.

 

5. You want to decide whether to take the car, bus, train, or airplane from Chicago to New York City

 

based on environmental impacts.

 

6. A chemical leak occurs in a manufacturing plant, and it needs to decide whether or not to evacuate

 

people from the area.

 

7. Afterward, the manufacturing plant in (6) must determine the best decontamination method for the

 

site where this leak occurs.

 

8. Regional authorities are considering creating a recycling auction for old materials and want to decide

 

which materials to include.

 

9. Congress wants to examine the impacts of using biofuels in the federal fleet of vehicles.

 


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