Question Details

(solution) FFIRS3GXML 10/20/2012 0:58:24 Page 4 FFIRS3GXML 10/20/2012


Hi,

I have an assignment. Will you able to work for me?.

Here is the topic: Privacy Issues

Employers have various ways of monitoring employees and potential employees including the use of electronic monitoring and accessing networking sites, such as Facebook. There are a number of ethical issues --in particular, an individual's right to privacy- which must be considered.

Discuss problems associated with personal privacy, organizational culture, and legal entitlements which might arise from these practices?

Please refer the attached document to give you an idea. its required 400 words and master level of answers with citations and references appropriately.


Readings:

Herman Tavani. (2013) Ethics and Technology: Controversies, Questions, and Strategies for Ethical Computing, 4th Edition.  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd  - Chapter 5, 11 

Andrew Adams & Rachel McCrindle (2008), Pandora?s Box, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  -  Chapter 7


FFIRS3GXML 10/20/2012 0:58:24 Page 4 FFIRS3GXML 10/20/2012 0:58:24 Page 1 ? FOURTH EDITION ETHICS

 

AND

 

TECHNOLOGY

 

Controversies, Questions, and Strategies

 

for Ethical Computing HERMAN T. TAVANI

 

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

 

Tavani, Herman T.

 

Ethics and technology : controversies, questions, and strategies for ethical

 

computing / Herman T. Tavani, Rivier University?Fourth edition.

 

pages cm

 

Includes bibliographical references and index.

 

ISBN 978-1-118-28172-7 (pbk.)

 

1. Computer networks?Moral and ethical aspects. I. Title.

 

TK5105.5.T385 2013

 

175?dc23

 

2012028589

 

Printed in the United States of America

 

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 FFIRS3GXML 10/20/2012 0:58:24 Page 3 In memory of my grandparents,

 

Leon and Marian (Roberts) Hutton,

 

and Antonio and Clelia (Giamberardino) Tavani FFIRS3GXML 10/20/2012 0:58:24 Page 4 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:1 Page 5 ? CONTENTS AT A GLANCE

 

PREFACE xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

FOREWORD xxvii xxix CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO CYBERETHICS: CONCEPTS, PERSPECTIVES,

 

AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS 1 CHAPTER 2. ETHICAL CONCEPTS AND ETHICAL THEORIES: ESTABLISHING

 

AND JUSTIFYING A MORAL SYSTEM 33 CHAPTER 3. CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS FOR EVALUATING DISPUTES IN

 

CYBERETHICS 74 CHAPTER 4. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS, CODES OF CONDUCT, AND MORAL

 

RESPONSIBILITY 101 CHAPTER 5. PRIVACY AND CYBERSPACE CHAPTER 6. SECURITY IN CYBERSPACE CHAPTER 7. CYBERCRIME AND CYBER-RELATED CRIMES CHAPTER 8. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISPUTES IN CYBERSPACE CHAPTER 9. REGULATING COMMERCE AND SPEECH IN CYBERSPACE 131

 

174

 

201 CHAPTER 10. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE, DEMOCRACY, AND WORK 230

 

269 303 CHAPTER 11. ONLINE COMMUNITIES, CYBER IDENTITIES, AND SOCIAL NETWORKS

 

CHAPTER 12. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF EMERGING AND CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES

 

GLOSSARY

 

INDEX 337

 

368 411 417 v FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:1 Page 6 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:1 Page 7 ? TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PREFACE xvii

 

New to the Fourth Edition xviii

 

Audience and Scope xix

 

Organization and Structure of the Book xxi

 

The Web Site for Ethics and Technology xxiii

 

A Note to Students xxiv

 

Note to Instructors: A Roadmap for Using This Book

 

A Note to Computer Science Instructors xxv

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

FOREWORD xxix xxiv xxvii c CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CYBERETHICS: CONCEPTS, PERSPECTIVES,

 

AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS 1

 

Scenario 1?1: A Fatal Cyberbullying Incident on MySpace 1

 

Scenario 1?2: Contesting the Ownership of a Twitter Account 2

 

Scenario 1?3: ?The Washingtonienne? Blogger 2

 

1.1 De?ning Key Terms: Cyberethics and Cybertechnology 3

 

1.1.1 What Is Cybertechnology? 4

 

1.1.2 Why the Term Cyberethics? 5

 

1.2 The Cyberethics Evolution: Four Developmental Phases in Cybertechnology 6

 

1.3 Are Cyberethics Issues Unique Ethical Issues? 9

 

Scenario 1?4: Developing the Code for a Computerized Weapon System 10

 

Scenario 1?5: Digital Piracy 11

 

1.3.1 Distinguishing between Unique Technological Features and Unique

 

Ethical Issues 11

 

1.3.2 An Alternative Strategy for Analyzing the Debate about the Uniqueness

 

of Cyberethics Issues 12

 

1.3.3 A Policy Vacuum in Duplicating Computer Software 13

 

1.4 Cyberethics as a Branch of Applied Ethics: Three Distinct Perspectives 14

 

1.4.1 Perspective #1: Cyberethics as a Field of Professional Ethics 15

 

1.4.2 Perspective #2: Cyberethics as a Field of Philosophical Ethics 18

 

1.4.3 Perspective #3: Cyberethics as a Field of Sociological/ Descriptive Ethics 21

 

Scenario 1?6: The Impact of Technology X on the Pleasantville Community 21

 

1.5 A Comprehensive Cyberethics Methodology 24

 

1.5.1 A ?Disclosive? Method for Cyberethics 25

 

1.5.2 An Interdisciplinary and Multilevel Method for Analyzing

 

Cyberethics Issues 26

 

1.6 A Comprehensive Strategy for Approaching Cyberethics Issues 27

 

1.7 Chapter Summary 28 vii FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:1 Page 8 viii c Table of Contents

 

Review Questions 28

 

Discussion Questions 29

 

Essay/Presentation Questions

 

Scenarios for Analysis 29

 

Endnotes 30

 

References 31

 

Further Readings 32

 

Online Resources 32 29 c CHAPTER 2 ETHICAL CONCEPTS AND ETHICAL THEORIES: ESTABLISHING

 

AND JUSTIFYING A MORAL SYSTEM 33

 

2.1 Ethics and Morality 33

 

Scenario 2?1: The ?Runaway Trolley?: A Classic Moral Dilemma 34

 

2.1.1 What Is Morality? 35

 

2.1.2 Deriving and Justifying the Rules and Principles of a Moral System

 

2.2 Discussion Stoppers as Roadblocks to Moral Discourse 42

 

2.2.1 Discussion Stopper #1: People Disagree on Solutions to

 

Moral Issues 43

 

2.2.2 Discussion Stopper #2: Who Am I to Judge Others? 45

 

2.2.3 Discussion Stopper #3: Morality Is Simply a Private Matter 47

 

2.2.4 Discussion Stopper #4: Morality Is Simply a Matter for Individual

 

Cultures to Decide 48

 

Scenario 2?2: The Perils of Moral Relativism 49

 

2.3 Why Do We Need Ethical Theories? 52

 

2.4 Consequence-Based Ethical Theories 53

 

2.4.1 Act Utilitarianism 55

 

Scenario 2?3: A Controversial Policy in Newmerica 55

 

2.4.2 Rule Utilitarianism 55

 

2.5 Duty-Based Ethical Theories 56

 

2.5.1 Rule Deontology 57

 

Scenario 2?4: Making an Exception for Oneself 58

 

2.5.2 Act Deontology 59

 

Scenario 2?5: A Dilemma Involving Con?icting Duties 60

 

2.6 Contract-Based Ethical Theories 61

 

2.6.1 Some Criticisms of Contract-Based Theories 62

 

2.6.2 Rights-Based Contract Theories 63

 

2.7 Character-Based Ethical Theories 64

 

2.7.1 Being a Moral Person vs. Following Moral Rules 64

 

2.7.2 Acquiring the ?Correct? Habits 65

 

2.8 Integrating Aspects of Classical Ethical Theories into a Single

 

Comprehensive Theory 66

 

2.8.1 Moor?s Just-Consequentialist Theory and Its Application to

 

Cybertechnology 67

 

2.8.2 Key Elements in Moor?s Just-Consequentialist Framework 69

 

2.9 Chapter Summary 70

 

Review Questions 70

 

Discussion Questions 71

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 71

 

Scenarios for Analysis 72

 

Endnotes 72 38 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 9 Table of Contents b ix

 

References 73

 

Further Readings 73 c CHAPTER 3 CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS FOR EVALUATING DISPUTES IN CYBERETHICS

 

3.1 Getting Started 74

 

Scenario 3?1: Reasoning About Whether to Download a File from ?Sharester? 75

 

3.1.1 De?ning Two Key Terms in Critical Reasoning: Claims and Arguments

 

3.1.2 The Role of Arguments in Defending Claims 76

 

3.1.3 The Basic Structure of an Argument 76

 

3.2 Constructing an Argument 78

 

3.3 Valid Arguments 80

 

3.4 Sound Arguments 83

 

3.5 Invalid Arguments 85

 

3.6 Inductive Arguments 86

 

3.7 Fallacious Arguments 87

 

3.8 A Seven-Step Strategy for Evaluating Arguments 89

 

3.9 Identifying Some Common Fallacies 91

 

3.9.1 Ad Hominem Argument 92

 

3.9.2 Slippery Slope Argument 92

 

3.9.3 Fallacy of Appeal to Authority 93

 

3.9.4 False Cause Fallacy 93

 

3.9.5 Begging the Question 94

 

3.9.6 Fallacy of Composition/ Fallacy of Division 94

 

3.9.7 Fallacy of Ambiguity/ Equivocation 95

 

3.9.8 Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum) 95

 

3.9.9 The Many/ Any Fallacy 96

 

3.9.10 The Virtuality Fallacy 97

 

3.10 Chapter Summary 98

 

Review Questions 98

 

Discussion Questions 98

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 99

 

Scenarios for Analysis 99

 

Endnotes 99

 

References 100

 

Further Readings 100 74 75 c CHAPTER 4 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS, CODES OF CONDUCT, AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITY

 

4.1 4.2

 

4.3 101 Professional Ethics 102

 

4.1.1 What Is a Profession? 103

 

4.1.2 Who Is a Professional? 103

 

4.1.3 Who Is a Computer/ IT Professional? 104

 

Do Computer/IT Professionals Have Any Special Moral Responsibilities? 105

 

4.2.1 Safety-Critical Software 105

 

Professional Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct 106

 

4.3.1 The Purpose of Professional Codes 107

 

4.3.2 Some Criticisms of Professional Codes 108

 

4.3.3 Defending Professional Codes 109

 

4.3.4 The IEEE-CS/ ACM Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional

 

Practice 110 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 10 x c Table of Contents

 

4.4 Con?icts of Professional Responsibility: Employee Loyalty and Whistle-Blowing 112

 

4.4.1 Do Employees Have an Obligation of Loyalty to Employers? 112

 

4.4.2 Whistle-Blowing Issues 114

 

Scenario 4?1: Whistle-Blowing and the ?Star Wars? Controversy 115

 

4.4.3 An Alternative Strategy for Understanding Professional Responsibility 117

 

4.5 Moral Responsibility, Legal Liability, and Accountability 117

 

4.5.1 Distinguishing Responsibility from Liability and Accountability 118

 

4.5.2 Accountability and the Problem of ?Many Hands? 119

 

Scenario 4?2: The Therac-25 Machine 120

 

4.5.3 Legal Liability and Moral Accountability 120

 

4.6 Risk Assessment in the Software Development Process 121

 

Scenario 4?3: The Aegis Radar System 121

 

4.7 Do Some Computer Corporations Have Special Moral Obligations? 122

 

4.7.1 Special Responsibilities for Search Engine Companies 123

 

4.7.2 Special Responsibilities for Companies that Develop Autonomous Systems 124

 

4.8 Chapter Summary 125

 

Review Questions 126

 

Discussion Questions 126

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 126

 

Scenarios for Analysis 127

 

Endnotes 128

 

References 128

 

Further Readings 130

 

c CHAPTER 5 PRIVACY AND CYBERSPACE

 

5.1

 

5.2 131 Are Privacy Concerns Associated with Cybertechnology Unique or Special? 132

 

What is Personal Privacy? 134

 

5.2.1 Accessibility Privacy: Freedom from Unwarranted Intrusion 135

 

5.2.2 Decisional Privacy: Freedom from Interference in One?s

 

Personal Affairs 135

 

5.2.3 Informational Privacy: Control over the Flow of Personal

 

Information 136

 

5.2.4 A Comprehensive Account of Privacy 136

 

Scenario 5?1: Descriptive Privacy 137

 

Scenario 5?2: Normative Privacy 137

 

5.2.5 Privacy as ?Contextual Integrity? 137

 

Scenario 5?3: Preserving Contextual Integrity in a University Seminar 138

 

5.3 Why is Privacy Important? 139

 

5.3.1 Is Privacy an Intrinsic Value? 140

 

5.3.2 Privacy as a Social Value 141

 

5.4 Gathering Personal Data: Monitoring, Recording, and Tracking Techniques 141

 

5.4.1 ?Dataveillance? Techniques 141

 

5.4.2 Internet Cookies 142

 

5.4.3 RFID Technology 143

 

5.4.4 Cybertechnology and Government Surveillance 145

 

5.5 Exchanging Personal Data: Merging and Matching Electronic Records 146

 

5.5.1 Merging Computerized Records 146

 

Scenario 5?4: Merging Personal Information in Unrelated Computer Databases 147

 

5.5.2 Matching Computerized Records 148

 

Scenario 5?5: Using Biometric Technology at Super Bowl XXXV 149 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 11 Table of Contents b xi

 

5.6 Mining Personal Data 150

 

5.6.1 How Does Data Mining Threaten Personal Privacy? 150

 

Scenario 5?6: Data Mining at the XYZ Bank 151

 

5.6.2 Web Mining 154

 

Scenario 5?7: The Facebook Beacon Controversy 154

 

5.7 Protecting Personal Privacy in Public Space 156

 

Scenario 5?8: Shopping at SuperMart 157

 

Scenario 5?9: Shopping at Nile.com 157

 

5.7.1 Search Engines and the Disclosure of Personal Information 158

 

Scenario 5?10: Tracking Your Search Requests on Google 159

 

5.7.2 Accessing Online Public Records 160

 

Scenario 5?11: Accessing Online Public Records in Pleasantville 161

 

Scenario 5?12: Accessing a State?s Motor Vehicle Records Online 162

 

5.8 Privacy-Enhancing Technologies 162

 

5.8.1 Educating Users about PETs 163

 

5.8.2 PETs and the Principle of Informed Consent 163

 

5.9 Privacy Legislation and Industry Self-Regulation 164

 

5.9.1 Industry Self-Regulation Initiatives Regarding Privacy 164

 

Scenario 5?13: Controversies Involving Google?s Privacy Policy 166

 

5.9.2 Privacy Laws and Data Protection Principles 166

 

5.10 Chapter Summary 168

 

Review Questions 169

 

Discussion Questions 169

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 170

 

Scenarios for Analysis 170

 

Endnotes 171

 

References 171

 

Further Readings 173

 

c CHAPTER 6 SECURITY IN CYBERSPACE 174 6.1 Security in the Context of Cybertechnology 174

 

6.1.1 Cybersecurity as Related to Cybercrime 175

 

6.1.2 Security and Privacy: Some Similarities and Some Differences

 

6.2 Three Categories of Cybersecurity 176

 

6.2.1 Data Security: Con?dentiality, Integrity, and Availability

 

of Information 177

 

6.2.2 System Security: Viruses, Worms, and Malware 178

 

Scenario 6?1: The Con?cker Worm 178

 

6.2.3 Network Security: Protecting our Infrastructure 179

 

Scenario 6?2: The GhostNet Controversy 179

 

6.3 ?Cloud Computing? and Security 180

 

6.3.1 Deployment and Service/ Delivery Models for the Cloud 181

 

6.3.2 Securing User Data Residing in the Cloud 182

 

6.4 Hacking and ?The Hacker Ethic? 183

 

6.4.1 What Is ?The Hacker Ethic?? 184

 

6.4.2 Are Computer Break-ins Ever Ethically Justi?able? 186

 

6.5 Cyberterrorism 187

 

6.5.1 Cyberterrorism vs. Hacktivism 188

 

Scenario 6?3: Anonymous and the ?Operation Payback? Attack 189

 

6.5.2 Cybertechnology and Terrorist Organizations 190 175 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 12 xii c Table of Contents

 

6.6 Information Warfare (IW) 191

 

6.6.1 Information Warfare vs. Conventional Warfare 191

 

Scenario 6?4: The Stuxnet Worm and the ?Olympic Games? Operation 192

 

6.6.2 Potential Consequences for Nations that Engage in IW 192

 

6.7 Cybersecurity and Risk Analysis 194

 

6.7.1 The Risk Analysis Methodology 194

 

6.7.2 The Problem of ?De-Perimeterization? of Information Security for

 

Analyzing Risk 195

 

6.8 Chapter Summary 196

 

Review Questions 196

 

Discussion Questions 197

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 197

 

Scenarios for Analysis 197

 

Endnotes 198

 

References 198

 

Further Readings 200

 

c CHAPTER 7 CYBERCRIME AND CYBER-RELATED CRIMES

 

7.1 201 Cybercrimes and Cybercriminals 201

 

7.1.1 Background Events: A Brief Sketch 202

 

7.1.2 A Typical Cybercriminal 203

 

7.2 Hacking, Cracking, and Counterhacking 203

 

7.2.1 Hacking vs. Cracking 204

 

7.2.2 Active Defense Hacking: Can Acts of ?Hacking Back? or Counter

 

Hacking Ever Be Morally Justi?ed? 204

 

7.3 De?ning Cybercrime 205

 

7.3.1 Determining the Criteria 206

 

7.3.2 A Preliminary De?nition of Cybercrime 207

 

Scenario 7?1: Using a Computer to File a Fraudulent Tax Return 207

 

7.3.3 Framing a Coherent and Comprehensive De?nition of Cybercrime 208

 

7.4 Three Categories of Cybercrime: Piracy, Trespass, and Vandalism in Cyberspace 208

 

7.5 Cyber-Related Crimes 209

 

7.5.1 Some Examples of Cyber-Exacerbated vs. Cyber-Assisted Crimes 209

 

7.5.2 Identity Theft 211

 

7.6 Technologies and Tools for Combating Cybercrime 213

 

Scenario 7?2: Intercepting Mail that Enters and Leaves Your Neighborhood 213

 

7.6.1 Biometric Technologies 214

 

7.6.2 Keystroke-Monitoring Software and Packet-Snif?ng Programs 215

 

7.7 Programs and Techniques Designed to Combat Cybercrime in the United States 216

 

7.7.1 Entrapment and ?Sting? Operations to Catch Internet Pedophiles 216

 

Scenario 7?3: Entrapment on the Internet 216

 

7.7.2 Enhanced Government Surveillance Techniques and the Patriot Act 217

 

7.8 National and International Laws to Combat Cybercrime 218

 

7.8.1 The Problem of Jurisdiction in Cyberspace 218

 

Scenario 7?4: A Virtual Casino 218

 

Scenario 7?5: Prosecuting a Computer Corporation in Multiple Countries 219

 

7.8.2 Some International Laws and Conventions Affecting Cybercrime 220

 

Scenario 7?6: The Pirate Bay Web Site 221

 

7.9 Cybercrime and the Free Press: The WikiLeaks Controversy 221

 

7.9.1 Are WikiLeaks? Practices Ethical? 222 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 13 Table of Contents b xiii

 

7.9.2 Are WikiLeaks? Practices Criminal? 222

 

7.9.3 WikiLeaks and the Free Press 223

 

7.10 Chapter Summary 225

 

Review Questions 225

 

Discussion Questions 226

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 226

 

Scenarios for Analysis 226

 

Endnotes 227

 

References 228

 

Further Readings 229

 

c CHAPTER 8 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISPUTES IN CYBERSPACE

 

8.1 230 What is Intellectual Property? 230

 

8.1.1 Intellectual Objects 231

 

8.1.2 Why Protect Intellectual Objects? 232

 

8.1.3 Software as Intellectual Property 232

 

8.1.4 Evaluating an Argument for Why It is Wrong to Copy

 

Proprietary Software 233

 

8.2 Copyright Law and Digital Media 235

 

8.2.1 The Evolution of Copyright Law in the United States 235

 

8.2.2 The Fair-Use and First-Sale Provisions of Copyright Law 236

 

Scenario 8?1: Making Classic Books Available Online 237

 

Scenario 8?2: Decrypting Security on an e-Book Reader 237

 

8.2.3 Software Piracy as Copyright Infringement 238

 

8.2.4 Napster and the Ongoing Battles over Sharing Digital Music 239

 

Scenario 8?3: The Case of MGM v. Grokster 241

 

8.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Trade Secrets 242

 

8.3.1 Patent Protections 242

 

8.3.2 Trademarks 243

 

8.3.3 Trade Secrets 243

 

8.4 Jurisdictional Issues Involving Intellectual Property Laws 244

 

8.5 Philosophical Foundations for Intellectual Property Rights 245

 

8.5.1 The Labor Theory of Property 245

 

Scenario 8?4: DEF Corporation vs. XYZ Inc. 246

 

8.5.2 The Utilitarian Theory of Property 247

 

Scenario 8?5: Sam?s e-Book Reader Add-on Device 247

 

8.5.3 The Personality Theory of Property 248

 

Scenario 8?6: Angela?s Bþþ Programming Tool 249

 

8.6 The Free Software and the Open Source Movements 250

 

8.6.1 GNU and the Free Software Foundation 250

 

8.6.2 The ?Open Source Software? Movement: OSS vs. FSF 251

 

8.7 The ?Common-Good? Approach: An Alternative Framework for Analyzing the

 

Intellectual Property Debate 252

 

8.7.1 Information Wants to be Shared vs. Information Wants to be Free 254

 

8.7.2 Preserving the Information Commons 256

 

8.7.3 The Fate of the Information Commons: Could the Public Domain of

 

Ideas Eventually Disappear? 257

 

8.7.4 The Creative Commons 259

 

8.8 PIPA, SOPA, and RWA Legislation: Current Battlegrounds in the Intellectual

 

Property War 260 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 14 xiv c Table of Contents

 

8.8.1 The PIPA and SOPA Battles 261

 

8.8.2 RWA and Public Access to Health-Related Information 261

 

Scenario 8?7: Elsevier Press and ?The Cost of Knowledge? Boycott 262

 

8.8.3 Intellectual Property Battles in the Near Future 263

 

8.9 Chapter Summary 264

 

Review Questions 264

 

Discussion Questions 265

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 265

 

Scenarios for Analysis 265

 

Endnotes 266

 

References 267

 

Further Readings 268

 

c CHAPTER 9 REGULATING COMMERCE AND SPEECH IN CYBERSPACE

 

9.1 269 Background Issues and Some Preliminary Distinctions 270

 

9.1.1 The Ontology of Cyberspace: Is the Internet a Medium or a Place? 270

 

9.1.2 Two Categories of Cyberspace Regulation 271

 

9.2 Four Modes of Regulation: The Lessig Model 273

 

9.3 Digital Rights Management and the Privatization of Information Policy 274

 

9.3.1 DRM Technology: Implications for Public Debate on Copyright Issues 274

 

Scenario 9?1: The Sony Rootkit Controversy 275

 

9.3.2 Privatizing Information Policy: Implications for the Internet 276

 

9.4 The Use and Misuse of (HTML) Metatags and Web Hyperlinks 278

 

9.4.1 Issues Surrounding the Use/Abuse of HTML Metatags 278

 

Scenario 9?2: A Deceptive Use of HTML Metatags 279

 

9.4.2 Hyperlinking and Deep Linking 279

 

Scenario 9?3: Deep Linking on the Ticketmaster Web Site 280

 

9.5 E-Mail Spam 281

 

9.5.1 De?ning Spam 281

 

9.5.2 Why Is Spam Morally Objectionable? 282

 

9.6 Free Speech vs. Censorship and Content Control in Cyberspace 284

 

9.6.1 Protecting Free Speech 284

 

9.6.2 De?ning Censorship 285

 

9.7 Pornography in Cyberspace 286

 

9.7.1 Interpreting ?Community Standards? in Cyberspace 286

 

9.7.2 Internet Pornography Laws and Protecting Children Online 287

 

9.7.3 Virtual Child Pornography 288

 

Scenario 9?4: A Sexting Incident Involving Greensburg Salem High School 290

 

9.8 Hate Speech and Speech that can Cause Physical Harm to Others 292

 

9.8.1 Hate Speech on the Web 292

 

9.8.2 Online ?Speech? that Can Cause Physical Harm to Others 294

 

9.9 ?Network Neutrality? and the Future of Internet Regulation 294

 

9.9.1 De?ning Network Neutrality 295

 

9.9.2 Some Arguments Advanced by Net Neutrality?s Proponents and Opponents 296

 

9.9.3 Future Implications for the Net Neutrality Debate 296

 

9.10 Chapter Summary 297

 

Review Questions 298

 

Discussion Questions 298

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 299

 

Scenarios for Analysis 299

 

Endnotes 300 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 15 Table of Contents b xv

 

References 300

 

Further Readings 301 c CHAPTER 10 THE DIGITAL DIVIDE, DEMOCRACY, AND WORK 303 10.1 The Digital Divide 304

 

10.1.1 The Global Digital Divide 304

 

10.1.2 The Digital Divide within Nations 305

 

Scenario 10?1: Providing In-Home Internet Service for Public School Students 306

 

10.1.3 Is the Digital Divide an Ethical Issue? 307

 

10.2 Cybertechnology and the Disabled 309

 

10.2.1 Disabled Persons and Remote Work 310

 

10.2.2 Arguments for Continued WAI Support 311

 

10.3 Cybertechnology and Race 312

 

10.3.1 Internet Usage Patterns 312

 

10.3.2 Racism and the Internet 313

 

10.4 Cybertechnology and Gender 314

 

10.4.1 Access to High-Technology Jobs 315

 

10.4.2 Gender Bias in Software Design and Video Games 317

 

10.5 Cybertechnology, Democracy, and Democratic Ideals 317

 

10.5.1 Has Cybertechnology Enhanced or Threatened Democracy? 318

 

10.5.2 How has Cybertechnology Affected Political Elections in

 

Democratic Nations? 322

 

10.6 The Transformation and the Quality of Work 324

 

10.6.1 Job Displacement and the Transformed Workplace 324

 

10.6.2 The Quality of Work Life in the Digital Era 328

 

Scenario 10?2: Employee Monitoring and the Case of Ontario v. Quon 329

 

10.7 Chapter Summary 331

 

Review Questions 332

 

Discussion Questions 332

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 333

 

Scenarios for Analysis 333

 

Endnotes 334

 

References 335

 

Further Readings 336

 

c CHAPTER 11 ONLINE COMMUNITIES, CYBER IDENTITIES, AND SOCIAL NETWORKS 337 11.1 Online Communities and Social Networking Services 337

 

11.1.1 Online Communities vs. Traditional Communities 337

 

11.1.2 Blogs in the Context of Online Communities 339

 

11.1.3 Assessing Pros and Cons of Online Communities 339

 

Scenario 11?1: A Virtual Rape in Cyberspace 342

 

11.2 Virtual Environments and Virtual Reality 343

 

11.2.1 What is Virtual Reality (VR)? 344

 

11.2.2 Ethical Controversies Involving Behavior in VR Applications and Games

 

11.2.3 Misrepresentation, Bias, and Indecent Representations in VR Applications

 

11.3 Cyber Identities and Cyber Selves: Personal Identity and Our Sense of Self

 

in the Cyber Era 351

 

11.3.1 Cybertechnology as a ?Medium of Self-Expression? 352

 

11.3.2 ?MUD Selves? and Distributed Personal Identities 352

 

11.3.3 The Impact of Cybertechnology on Our Sense of Self 353

 

11.4 AI and its Implications for What it Means to be Human 355 345

 

349 FTOC3GXML 10/20/2012 1:3:2 Page 16 xvi c Table of Contents

 

11.4.1 What is AI? A Brief Overview 355

 

11.4.2 The Turing Test and John Searle?s ?Chinese Room? Argument 357

 

11.4.3 Cyborgs and Human-Machine Relationships 358

 

Scenario 11?2: Arti?cial Children 361

 

11.4.4 Do (At Least Some) AI Entities Warrant Moral Consideration? 361

 

11.5 Chapter Summary 363

 

Review Questions 363

 

Discussion Questions 364

 

Essay/Presentation Questions 364

 

Scenarios for Analysis 365

 

Endnotes 365

 

References 366

 

Further Readings 367

 

c CHAPTER 12 ETHICAL ASPECTS OF EMERGING AND CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES 368 12.1 Converging Technologies and Technological Convergence 368

 

12.2...

 


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